Lifescience Global

ijcs

IJSC

Exploring Places of Street Drug Dealing in a Downtown Area in Brazil: An Analysis of the Reliability of Google Street View in International Criminological Research - Pages 32-47

Elenice DeSouza Oliveira and Ko-Hsin Hsu

DOI: https://doi.org/10.6000/1929-4409.2018.07.04

Published: 02 February 2018


Abstract: This study assesses the reliability of Google Street View (GSV) in auditing environmental features that help create hotbeds of drug dealing in Belo Horizonte, one of Brazil’s largest cities. Based on concepts of “crime generators” and “crime enablers,” a set of 40 items were selected using arrest data related to drug activities for the period between 2007 and 2011. These items served to develop a GSV data collection instrument used to observe features of 135 street segments that were identified as drug dealing hot spots in downtown Belo Horizonte. The study employs an intra-class correlation (ICC) statistics as a measure of reliability. The study showed mixed findings regarding agreement on some features among raters. One on hand, the observer’s lack of familiarity with the local culture and street dynamics may pose a challenge with regards to identifying environmental features. On the other hand, factors such as image quality, objects that obstruct the view, and the overlooking of addresses that are not officially registered also decrease the reliability of the instrument. We conclude that a combination of tools and strategies should be applied to make the use of GSV truly reliable in the field of international criminological research.

Keywords: Google Street View, Gangs, Policing, Brazil, Violence.

Download Full Article

IJSC

Geography and Sentencing: Does Country of Citizenship Influence Sentence Longevity?  - Pages 48-58
 
Gale Iles and Oladipupo V. Adegun

DOI: https://doi.org/10.6000/1929-4409.2018.07.05

Published: 02 February 2018


Abstract: Contentious debates on immigrants in the United States has led to growing interest in their treatment in the criminal justice system. Much of what is known, however, springs from research that treats immigrants as a homogeneousgroup. The lumping of all immigrants into one category potentially mask variances in sentencing based on national origins. The current study disaggregates federal sentencing data to explore whether length of sentence differs by the defendants’ geographical region of citizenship. After controlling for a number of legal and extra-legal factors, sentences imposed upon Mexican citizens were found to be longer than sentences meted out to defendants who are citizens of other countries. Evidence suggesting that national origin has a stronger influence on sentence length than race/ethnicity and legal status was also detected. Implications of the findings and directions for future research are discussed.

Keywords: Immigrants, Country of origin, U.S. Federal Sentencing, Disparity.

Download Full Article

IJSC

What Happens When Investigating A Crime Takes Up Too Much Time? An Examination of How Optimal Law Enforcement Theory Impacts Sentencing
Pages  215-225

Creative Commons LicenseKatherine Ray, Elizabeth L. Borkowski, Wanda Leal and William D. Bales

DOI: https://doi.org/10.6000/1929-4409.2017.06.23

Published: 20 November 2017


Abstract: Previous research finds that variations in sentencing outcomes still exist among similarly situated individuals, especially among drug offenders. While courtroom actors are often the focus of sentencing disparities, law enforcement officers are rarely studied. This is problematic because criminological research has yet to explore whether law enforcement could influence sentencing decisions. The current study aims to discover the influence of a previously ignored legal variable, investigation workload, on sentence length and directly examine an untested criminal justice theory, Optimal Law Enforcement Theory. This study will explore these overlooked concepts with a rare dataset that contains information on individuals convicted of prescription drug trafficking in Florida from 2011-2013. We find that investigation workload does influence sentencing, with offenders convicted from a high police workload being significantly more likely to experience longer sentences than offenders convicted from a low investigation workload. Limitations and policy implications are also discussed.

Keywords: Courtroom Actors, Investigation Workload, Law Enforcement, Optimal Law Enforcement, Sentencing.

Download Full Article

IJSC

Caught between ‘Crossfire’ in the Context of Bangladesh - Pages 20-31
A.B.M. Najmus Sakib1 and Zarin Tasnim Rashid2

1Victimology and Criminal Justice, Tilburg University, Netherlands; 2Culture Studies: Ritual in Society, Tilburg University, Netherlands

DOI: https://doi.org/10.6000/1929-4409.2018.07.03

Published: 24 January 2018


Abstract: In recent times, the law enforcement agencies of Bangladesh are universally appreciated for their constitutive and plucky attitude to extremist gangs inside the country. Contrariwise, a suspicious incident of a particular form of extrajudicial killing; Crossfire is fading their achievements. Initially, it was a media term, but now widely used to express the murder of a criminal or accused in a gunfight event between members of law enforcement agencies and criminal groups. This occurrence is facing enormous criticisms in the home and abroad and considered as a violation of human rights. Though public notions about these incidents are surprisingly flexible and they consider this for a prognosis to remainder culprits. This paper analyzed the justice idea of both groups; who are for and against this event from a moral philosophical perspective in the context of Bangladesh. Both the utilitarian idea analyzed by Jeremy Bentham (consequences) and John Stuart Mill (individual human rights) echoes the voice of these two distinct groups respectively. However, the article advocates for a distinctive idea of justice known as deontological philosophy proposed by Immanuel Kant. This moral ideology concentrates on universal human rights and keeps the consequences aside. Considering the fact ‘Crossfire’, this paper believed there is no alternative to ensuring justice and enacting moral duty of law enforcement agencies to indemnify security and safety of the citizen of Bangladesh. 

Keywords: Crossfire, Law enforcement agencies, Extrajudicial killing, Moral philosophy, Utilitarianism, Deontology.

Download Full Article

IJSC

Foreign Burglars: Primary Results of an Interview Study with Arrested Offenders in Germany 
Pages 226-233

Creative Commons License

Gina Rosa Wollinger and Nadine Jukschat
DOI: https://doi.org/10.6000/1929-4409.2017.06.24

Published: 22 December 2017 


Abstract: Given that the domestic burglary rate in Germany has been on the rise for years, there is currently a huge debate in political arenas and in the media concerning the offenders—especially foreign offenders. However, there is little specific research on burglars, particularly foreign burglars. This paper reports on the main results of a qualitative interview study with convicted foreign offenders in Germany. We conducted 30 narrative-biographical interviews with offenders from 15 different countries. The findings suggest the stereotype of foreign burglars in high-crime gangs is too one-dimensional. Moreover, there is a large range of different motives, biographical backgrounds, and modi operandi. Further, results show that specific circumstances in Germany support the behavior of foreign criminal, such as accommodation possibilities from contacts already living in Germany, or the availability of local fences (i.e. receivers of stolen goods).

Keywords: Residential burglary, offenders, burglary prevention.

Download Full Article

OUR STRENGTHS

♦  Worldwide readership
♦  High quality content
♦  Maximum visibility
♦  Efficient publishing
♦  Optional Open Access

Publish your Research

Survey

As an author what type of publishing model you prefer?

780
Open Access
493
Optional Open Access
338
Subscription based
5 Votes left