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IJSC

Caught between ‘Crossfire’ in the Context of Bangladesh - Pages 20-31
A.B.M. Najmus Sakib1 and Zarin Tasnim Rashid2

1Victimology and Criminal Justice, Tilburg University, Netherlands; 2Culture Studies: Ritual in Society, Tilburg University, Netherlands

DOI: https://doi.org/10.6000/1929-4409.2018.07.03

Published: 24 January 2018


Abstract: In recent times, the law enforcement agencies of Bangladesh are universally appreciated for their constitutive and plucky attitude to extremist gangs inside the country. Contrariwise, a suspicious incident of a particular form of extrajudicial killing; Crossfire is fading their achievements. Initially, it was a media term, but now widely used to express the murder of a criminal or accused in a gunfight event between members of law enforcement agencies and criminal groups. This occurrence is facing enormous criticisms in the home and abroad and considered as a violation of human rights. Though public notions about these incidents are surprisingly flexible and they consider this for a prognosis to remainder culprits. This paper analyzed the justice idea of both groups; who are for and against this event from a moral philosophical perspective in the context of Bangladesh. Both the utilitarian idea analyzed by Jeremy Bentham (consequences) and John Stuart Mill (individual human rights) echoes the voice of these two distinct groups respectively. However, the article advocates for a distinctive idea of justice known as deontological philosophy proposed by Immanuel Kant. This moral ideology concentrates on universal human rights and keeps the consequences aside. Considering the fact ‘Crossfire’, this paper believed there is no alternative to ensuring justice and enacting moral duty of law enforcement agencies to indemnify security and safety of the citizen of Bangladesh. 

Keywords: Crossfire, Law enforcement agencies, Extrajudicial killing, Moral philosophy, Utilitarianism, Deontology.

IJSC

Exploring Places of Street Drug Dealing in a Downtown Area in Brazil: An Analysis of the Reliability of Google Street View in International Criminological Research - Pages 32-47

Elenice DeSouza Oliveira and Ko-Hsin Hsu

DOI: https://doi.org/10.6000/1929-4409.2018.07.04

Published: 02 February 2018


Abstract: This study assesses the reliability of Google Street View (GSV) in auditing environmental features that help create hotbeds of drug dealing in Belo Horizonte, one of Brazil’s largest cities. Based on concepts of “crime generators” and “crime enablers,” a set of 40 items were selected using arrest data related to drug activities for the period between 2007 and 2011. These items served to develop a GSV data collection instrument used to observe features of 135 street segments that were identified as drug dealing hot spots in downtown Belo Horizonte. The study employs an intra-class correlation (ICC) statistics as a measure of reliability. The study showed mixed findings regarding agreement on some features among raters. One on hand, the observer’s lack of familiarity with the local culture and street dynamics may pose a challenge with regards to identifying environmental features. On the other hand, factors such as image quality, objects that obstruct the view, and the overlooking of addresses that are not officially registered also decrease the reliability of the instrument. We conclude that a combination of tools and strategies should be applied to make the use of GSV truly reliable in the field of international criminological research.

Keywords: Google Street View, Gangs, Policing, Brazil, Violence.

IJSC

The Case of Ditto Block: A Study of Special Weapons and Tactics, Antisocial Personality, Mental Illness and Barricade Offenders - Pages 59-114
 
Terrance G. Lichtenwald and Frank S. Perri

DOI: https://doi.org/10.6000/1929-4409.2018.07.06

Published: 2 March 2018


Abstract: Comprehensive analysis of a repeat barricade offender as part of a Sanity at the Time of Offense evaluation is presented. Sources of information included law enforcement, legal, medical, mental health, and correctional documents from before, during, and after both barricades. Analysis included triangulation of validity interviews from multiple sources against multiple barricade offender databases and research. Incident and offender characteristics at time of barricade one is compared against barricade two.

After the first barricade, the offender completed Fitness to Stand Trial restoration, found fit to stand for a jury trial, found not guilty and released. One year later, he was involuntarily admitted to a mental health hospital. Within one week after court-ordered release, the second barricade occurred. During barricade two, the Special Weapons and Tactics team had no intelligence regarding the first barricade. The offender foresaw negotiation strategies and cut off communication. He predicted Special Weapons and Tactic team tactics; he ambushed the team, stalled the entry, retreated, and created a standoff that concluded in a failed suicide by cop incident. Different Third-Party Intermediaries participated in both barricades. During barricade one, the Third-Party Intermediary (his sister) provided intelligence. During barricade two, the Third-Party Intermediary (ex-girlfriend) did not provide intelligence until after the dynamic entry failed, and a team member gathered intelligence from her. Mental health providers never provided intelligence to law enforcement.

Analysis reveals Special Weapons and Tactical Teams cannot operate without behavioral specialists. Community leaders’ continuous comprehensive oversight of Special Weapons and Tactical Teams is required for appropriate communication among professionals and policy decisions derived from pattern analysis of Post Incident Reports. Offender risk assessment require law enforcement, corrections, and mental health contributions. Repeat barricade offender scenarios are required components of professional development for Special Weapons and Tactics teams, mental health providers, attorneys, judges, and community leaders.

IJSC

Geography and Sentencing: Does Country of Citizenship Influence Sentence Longevity?  - Pages 48-58
 
Gale Iles and Oladipupo V. Adegun

DOI: https://doi.org/10.6000/1929-4409.2018.07.05

Published: 02 February 2018


Abstract: Contentious debates on immigrants in the United States has led to growing interest in their treatment in the criminal justice system. Much of what is known, however, springs from research that treats immigrants as a homogeneousgroup. The lumping of all immigrants into one category potentially mask variances in sentencing based on national origins. The current study disaggregates federal sentencing data to explore whether length of sentence differs by the defendants’ geographical region of citizenship. After controlling for a number of legal and extra-legal factors, sentences imposed upon Mexican citizens were found to be longer than sentences meted out to defendants who are citizens of other countries. Evidence suggesting that national origin has a stronger influence on sentence length than race/ethnicity and legal status was also detected. Implications of the findings and directions for future research are discussed.

IJSC

Some Temporarily Successful Experiences along Three Decades of Failure: Crime and Public Policy in Brazil - Pages 115-120
 
Renan Springer de Freitas and Ludmila Ribeiro

DOI: https://doi.org/10.6000/1929-4409.2018.07.07

Published: 11 April 2018


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