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ijcs

IJSC

Some Conceptual Basis for Crime Prevention in Brazil and USA: Generic Public Policies and Control Crime Programs - Pages 184-195
 
Claudio Beato and Andréa Silveira

DOI: https://doi.org/10.6000/1929-4409.2018.07.13

Published: 17 April 2018


Abstract: This paper is a comparison in crime prevention between Brazil and United States, specially regarding the role of local programs vis a vis generic social policies. In Brazil, there is a tendency to design more generic strategies of crime control. In USA, there is a style of using a more specific approaches. These differences have implication on the evaluations on crime prevention made in each country

Keywords: Crime prevention, public policies in crime control, Brazil crime prevention, United States crime prevention.

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IJSC

Violence and Public Safety as a Democratic Simulacrum in Brazil - Pages 159-172
 
Renato Sérgio de Lima

DOI: https://doi.org/10.6000/1929-4409.2018.07.11

Published: 13 April 2018


Abstract: This paper analyzes actions taken by eight special programs for homicide reduction implemented in the states of Bahia, Ceará, Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais, Pernambuco, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, as well as the Brazilian Federal District. It aims to understand the historical permanence of lethal violence as one of the most striking social characteristics of Brazil and defends the argument that the prevention and tackling of homicides – understood in a broad sense that includes all intentional violent deaths – are operated, both politically and institutionally, from a symbolic simulacrum that causes incremental initiatives to fail to reach the architecture of criminal justice and public security institutions. As structural reforms in the criminal justice and public security system face several obstacles to being approved by the Legislative Branch, this simulacrum makes the police force and other institutions belonging to the system to continue operating from a center of criminal policies that do not depend on the construction of a democratic project of public security, protection of life or civil and human rights. The study reiterates that the debate on transparency and data quality can allow actions to strengthen institutional capacity for monitoring and evaluation and/or strategic litigation, which in turn may weaken of the path dependence and worldviews that operate the identified simulacrum. In other words, the debate on transparency and data quality is one of the strongest battlefronts for the reduction of violence and for the democratization of public safety in Brazil.

Keywords: Violence, Homicides, Simulacrum, Public safety in Brazil.

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IJSC

Exploring Places of Street Drug Dealing in a Downtown Area in Brazil: An Analysis of the Reliability of Google Street View in International Criminological Research - Pages 32-47

Elenice DeSouza Oliveira and Ko-Hsin Hsu

DOI: https://doi.org/10.6000/1929-4409.2018.07.04

Published: 02 February 2018


Abstract: This study assesses the reliability of Google Street View (GSV) in auditing environmental features that help create hotbeds of drug dealing in Belo Horizonte, one of Brazil’s largest cities. Based on concepts of “crime generators” and “crime enablers,” a set of 40 items were selected using arrest data related to drug activities for the period between 2007 and 2011. These items served to develop a GSV data collection instrument used to observe features of 135 street segments that were identified as drug dealing hot spots in downtown Belo Horizonte. The study employs an intra-class correlation (ICC) statistics as a measure of reliability. The study showed mixed findings regarding agreement on some features among raters. One on hand, the observer’s lack of familiarity with the local culture and street dynamics may pose a challenge with regards to identifying environmental features. On the other hand, factors such as image quality, objects that obstruct the view, and the overlooking of addresses that are not officially registered also decrease the reliability of the instrument. We conclude that a combination of tools and strategies should be applied to make the use of GSV truly reliable in the field of international criminological research.

Keywords: Google Street View, Gangs, Policing, Brazil, Violence.

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IJSC

Construction and Deconstruction of a Homicide Reduction Policy: The Case of Pact for Life in Pernambuco, Brazil - Pages 173-183
 
José Luiz Ratton and Jean Daudelin

DOI: https://doi.org/10.6000/1929-4409.2018.07.12

Published: 13 April 2018


Abstract: This paper tries to demonstrate that both the fall in homicides in Pernambuco (from 2007-2013) and the resurgence in them that followed (2014-2017) are fundamentally linked to two explanatory variables, which are in turn connected: the model of governance of public security produced in Pernambuco at the level of state government strategy and the capacity for deterrence produced in the framework of the Criminal Justice System (especially that of state police, who are under the responsibility and “control” of the executive power of the state). This article argues that the construction of this specific model of governance of Public Security and the definition, monitoring and realization of deterrence strategies within the police were crucial to the reduction of the number of homicides in the most violent areas of the state. On the other hand, the dissolution of the capacity for integrated governance of the police, with the consequent dismantling of the deterrence capacity aimed primarily at the reduction of homicides and crimes against life that had been successfully conceived and realized between 2007 and 2013, explains the increase in intentional violent crimes that has been observed since 2014.

Keywords: Reduction and Resurgence of Homicides, Governance, Deterrence, Pact for Life, Public Security.

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IJSC

Geography and Sentencing: Does Country of Citizenship Influence Sentence Longevity?  - Pages 48-58
 
Gale Iles and Oladipupo V. Adegun

DOI: https://doi.org/10.6000/1929-4409.2018.07.05

Published: 02 February 2018


Abstract: Contentious debates on immigrants in the United States has led to growing interest in their treatment in the criminal justice system. Much of what is known, however, springs from research that treats immigrants as a homogeneousgroup. The lumping of all immigrants into one category potentially mask variances in sentencing based on national origins. The current study disaggregates federal sentencing data to explore whether length of sentence differs by the defendants’ geographical region of citizenship. After controlling for a number of legal and extra-legal factors, sentences imposed upon Mexican citizens were found to be longer than sentences meted out to defendants who are citizens of other countries. Evidence suggesting that national origin has a stronger influence on sentence length than race/ethnicity and legal status was also detected. Implications of the findings and directions for future research are discussed.

Keywords: Immigrants, Country of origin, U.S. Federal Sentencing, Disparity.

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