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International Journal of Child Health and Nutrition

Self-Reported Academic Performance and Lifestyle Habits of School Children in Japan
Pages 90-97
Jun Kohyama

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1929-4247.2017.06.03.1

Published: 11 September 2017

 


Abstract: Background and Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the lifestyle habits significantly associated with self-reported academic performance (AP) in children in grades 5 to 12 in Japan.

Methods: A total of 2,114 completed questionnaires were analyzed. Factors examined included habits related to sleeping, eating, defecation, physical activity, and screen time, in addition to body mass index (BMI). Social jet lag (SJL) was calculated from sleeping factors and categorized into five groups according to its value: minus 1 or less (SJL 1), more than minus 1 and 0 or less (SJL 2), more than 0 and 1 or less (SJL 3), more than 1 and 2 or less (SJL 4), and more than 2 (SJL 5). The association between self-reported AP and other factors except for SJL was assessed by means of multinomial logistic regression analysis.

Results: Factors significantly associated with good self-reported AP included female gender, lower grade, less sleepiness, lower BMI, intake of breakfast, less constipation, early wake-up time during the weekend, and short screen time during the weekend. The mean self-reported AP of SJL 3 was better than that of both SJL 5 and SJL 1.

Conclusions: Self-reported AP was associated with gender, grade, BMI, sleep, breakfast, defecation, and screen time in children in grades 5 to 12 in Japan. It must be ensured that children take enough time to perform the indispensable human behaviors of sleeping, eating, defecation, and physical activity.

Keywords: Sleep, breakfast, constipation, social jet lag, physical activity, screen time.

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International Journal of Child Health and Nutrition

Prevalence of Hospital Malnutrition at Admission and Outcomes in Pediatric Patients
Pages 98-104
Onwaree Sukhosa and Kulnipa Kittisakmontri

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1929-4247.2017.06.03.2

Published: 11 September 2017

 


Abstract:  Background: Hospitalized children are at risk of malnutrition and vulnerable for many adverse outcomes.

Objectives: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of hospital malnutrition in pediatric patients admitted at Chiang Mai University (CMU) hospital and evaluate correlation between malnutrition and outcomes including length of hospital stay (LOS), total hospital cost and mortality.

Methods and Study Design: A prospective cohort study was conducted at CMU hospital. Patients aged 1 month to 15 year-old who admitted to general pediatric wards were included. Demographic data, anthropometric assessments including weight, length/height and outcomes were collected. Malnutrition was classified by the WHO growth reference.

Results: A total of 217 patients with mean age 68.8 ± 53.8 month-old were analyzed. Majority of them were male (65.4%) while leading diagnosis were oncologic, infectious and congenital heart diseases. The prevalence of all malnutrition was 59.9%. According to the WHO classification, percentages of the patients who were stunted, wasted, both of stunted and wasted, and overweight were 29.9%, 9.2%, 17.1%, and 3.7%, respectively. Moreover, compared to previous study of this center in 1985, more than half of hospitalized children have still assessed as under-malnourished patients. For the hospital outcomes, wasting regardless of stunting had significantly longer LOS (8 vs 5 days, p = 0.001) and higher hospital expenditure (37,283.0 vs 23,630.0 Baht, p = 0.004) while mortality was not different.

Conclusions: The prevalence of malnutrition in hospitalized children is common and remains unchanged. Acute malnutrition significantly impact on total hospital cost and prolong LOS comparing with other groups.

Keywords: Undernutrition, Malnutrition, Hospitalized children, Hospital outcomes, Hospital cost.

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International Journal of Child Health and Nutrition

Nutritional Status among Children under Five Years in Amman, Jordan

Pages 110-115

Mohammad El Azhari, Ahmad Abu Slaih, Yousef S. Khader, Abdulhalim Al-Musa and Ibrahim Iblan

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1929-4247.2017.06.03.4

Published: 11 September 2017 


Abstract: Objectives: There is scarcity of data on malnutrition among children in Jordan. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the nutritional status and estimate the prevalence rates of stunting, underweight, and wasting and their associated factors among children under five.

Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between January and April 2017 among children under five years in Amman, Jordan. All Jordanian children under five years who visited the selected health centers for vaccination or accompanied their mothers during the study period were included in this study. Mothers or caregivers of children were interviewed face-to face using the study questionnaire. Weight in kilograms and height in centimeters were measured for all children. Anthropometric indices were calculated using reference medians recommended by the World Health Organization.

Results: This study included a total of 923 (463 boys and 460 girls) children. The prevalence rates of stunting, underweight, and wasting were 6.2%, 3.8%, and 2.8%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that low birth weight was significantly associated with stunting (OR = 2.9, 95% CI: 1.4,6.0; p-value=0.003) and underweight (OR =5.6, 95% CI: 2.5,12.3, p-value <0.001). Compared to exclusive breastfeeding, mixed feeding was associated with increased odds of stunting (OR =2, 95% CI: 1.1-3.9, p-value =0.029) and underweight (OR = 2.2, 95% CI: 1.002, 5.0; p = 0.049). None of the variables were significantly associated with wasting.

Conclusions: The prevalence rates of stunting, wasting and undernutrition among children under five years in Jordan are low. Low birth weight and mixed feeding were associated with higher rates of malnutrition.

Keywords: Malnutrition, stunting, wasting, undernutrition.

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International Journal of Child Health and Nutrition

Blood Microsampling for Complete Blood Count: Take Heed of Preanalytical Errors
Pages 105-109
Barbara Kościelniak, Andrzej Zając and Przemysław Tomasik

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1929-4247.2017.06.03.3

Published: 11 September 2017

 


Abstract: Background: The credibility of the result of a complete blood count is closely connected with the preanalytical phase.

Objectives: This study evaluated accordance of filling of microtubes with manufacturer’s recommendation and assessed the effect of storage of overfilled and underfilled samples on the results of complete blood count.

Design and Methods: Volume of blood samples collected into microtubes in the wards of the University Children's Hospital in Cracow during one month was analyzed. In the stability studies, overfilled and underfilled samples stored at ambient temperature were analyzed at 1, 2, 3 and 12 hours after phlebotomy. The analysis was made using the SYSMEX XT-1800i analyzer.

Results: More than half of the analyzed samples were incorrectly filled. 63% of the samples were filled above the manufacturer's recommended volume and 15% of test-tubes were filled below the recommendation. We observed differences between collected blood volume in accordance to the age of patients (p=0.001). The storage of overfilled and underfilled microtubes for complete blood count for 1,2,3 and 12 h at room temperature had no effect on the results of this test.

Conclusion: Medical staff does not follow the instructions of the manufacturers. It might lead to a decrease of the quality and credibility of the results.

Keywords: Phlebotomy, preanalytical error, nurse training, children.

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International Journal of Child Health and Nutrition

The Impact of Maternal Employment on Infant Weight-, Length- and BMI-for-Age Based upon WHO Growth Chart Standards
Pages 116-122
Safaa A. Al-Zeidaneen, Nahla S. Al-Bayyari and Marwa A. Al-Zidaneen

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1929-4247.2017.06.03.5

Published: 11 September 2017

 


Abstract: Background: The infancy is a time of phenomenal growth and development. Infant of working mothers have a special concern as they have less time for their infant care.

Objective: The present study aims to assess length, weight and BMI of Jordanian infants in nursery in reference to WHO growth chart standard for age Z-score and to study the impact of mothers’ work on their infant’s growth.

Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted on 92 infants aged between 3-12 months randomly and recruited from nurseries in Amman, Jordan. All selected infants their mothers are employed and working for at least 8 hour per day. The participants were divided according to gender (male; female) and age group as the following: 3-6 months; 7-9 months; and 10-12 months.

Results: The prevalence of overweight or obesity was 15.2% in all studied infants. Overweight or obesity was more prevalent among female infants aged 3-6 months and among male infants aged 7-12 months. No infant (0.00%) regardless of gender or age group was underweight, stunting nor wasting per WHO standards of BMI for age z-score.

Conclusion: Most infants of Jordanian working mothers seemingly have normal growth in weight and length and few of them were overweight or obese according to WHO standard of BMI for age z-score. These indicated that Jordan work polices support working mothers and their infants to have better health and development.

Keywords: Infant anthropometry, working mothers, nursery, z-score, overweight, obesity.

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