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Differences between 66 Chemical Element Contents in Normal and Cancerous Prostate
Vladimir Zaichick


Abstract: Prostate cancer is an internationally important health problem in man, particularly in developed countries. The aim of this exploratory study was to clarify the differences between the prostatic levels of chemical elements in patients with malignantly transformed prostate (PCa) and healthy male inhabitance. Prostatic tissue levels of 66 chemical elements were prospectively evaluated in 60 patients with PCa and 37 healthy males. Measurements were performed using a combination of five non-destructive and destructive analytical methods. A significant increase in the mean level of Ag, Al, Au, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Br, Ce, Cr, Cu, Dy, Er, Fe, Gd, Hg, Ho, Li, Mn, Nd, Ni, Pr, Sb, Si, Sm, Sn, Sr, Tb, Th, Ti, Tl, Tm, Y and Zr accompanied a decrease in the mean level of Ca, Cd, Co, K, Mg, Na, P, Rb, S, Sc, Se, and Zn was observed in the cancerous prostates. It was not found any differences in the mean prostatic level of other chemical elements including Cs, La, Mo, Nb, P, Pb, U, and Yb between PCa patients and healthy males. This work’s results reveal that in malignantly transformed prostate the chemical element metabolism is drastically disturbed.

Keywords: Prostate cancer, prostatic chemical element contents, energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis, neutron activation analysis, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.




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Comparison of Analytical Characteristics of Commercial and in-House Methods for DNA Isolation from Paraffin Histology Blocks
Pages 1-6
Natalya Oskina, Ashot Avdalyan, Dmitriy Subbotin, Alexandr Lazarev, Alexandr Kel,Nikolay Kushlinskii and Maxim Filipenko
Published: 26 January 2017

Abstract: One of the hotspots in clinical research today is molecular genetic analysis of structural DNA alterations. Working with DNA obtained from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens is particularly challenging, due to cross-linking and fragmentation of DNA. We performed a comparative analysis of DNA extraction methods from FFPE tissue using two in-house protocols and Qiagen (QIAamp DNA FFPE Tissue Kit) and Roche (High Pure FFPET DNA Isolation Kit) commercial kits presented in the Russian market and used in clinical practice. To assess the quantity and quality of the isolated DNA, we used the real-time PCR to rate DNA yield, the inhibited impurity content and the degree of fragmentation. Our findings may be useful for a medical laboratory that performs testing of somatic mutations for the targeted therapy selection, and researchers who specialized in tumor genome structure studies in respect to patient prognosis and prediction of the sensitivity or resistance of tumor cells to therapy.

Keywords: DNA extraction, formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue blocks, QIAamp DNA FFPE Tissue Kit, High Pure FFPET DNA Isolation Kit, PCR.
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Brachytherapy in Head and Neck Cancer: A Forgotten Art or a Skill to be Remembered!!
Pages 14-22
A.S. Kirthi Koushik and R.C. Alva
Published: 26 January 2017

Abstract: Radiation therapy is a critical part of multi-modality management of head and neck cancers. Brachytherapy or internal radiation is an ideal method of treatment delivery to achieve the ultimate goal of radiation treatment, that is maximum dose to tumour and minimum dose to normal tissues. Brachytherapy enables the radiation oncologist to provide a perfect mixture of radiation physics, radiobiology and clinical acumen to counter head and neck cancers. Appropriate usage based on the clearly defined indications and simple methods can maximize the advantages of brachytherapy thus resulting in excellent outcomes. However, the steady decline in utilization of brachytherapy over the years coupled with the technological advances of highly conformal radiotherapy, have dented its broader application for head and neck cancers. Can the new age radiation oncologist afford to neglect this therapeutic skill set?

Keywords: Head & Neck Cancer, Brachytherapy, Radiotherapy.
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Distribution of Breast Cancer Biomarkers by Age in Iran
Pages 7-13
Hassan Akbari, Farzad Taghizadeh Hesary and Laya Rahnar Nikoukar
Published: 26 January 2017

Abstract: Background and Objectives: Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer related death globally and presents as the most common female malignancy in Iran. Multiple factors are associated with an increased risk of developing breast cancer; for example first degree family history of breast cancer, BRCA1, 2 mutation and history of atypical hyperplasia on biopsy are the most important risk factors for developing breast cancer. Some prognostic factors are classically used that it would help us to either choosing recommended optimal treatment or recognizing the prognosis. In several studies it is shown that these factors have different patterns in age groups or histopathologic types. The aim of this study was to determine the age distribution of hormone receptors and biomarkers and determine their relation to the histopathologic types.

Methods: Data were gathered from the medical records of Baqiyatallah hospital, Tehran, Iran. Breast cancer patients whose disease was confirmed by pathologic studies and had immunohistochemical profile, were included. Estrogen receptor (ER), Progesterone receptors (PR), HER2/neu and p53 were selected as biomarkers of this study.

Results: Mean age of patients was 49.47±12.50 years (range 20 to 86). The most common histopathologic type was invasive ductal carcinoma. Distribution of ER and PR against age detected similar; ER positivity increased with age and it peaked in fifth decade of life, and PR positivity showed more regular pattern and it also peaked in fifth decade of life (p <0.05) HER2/neu positivity also had trend to increase with age and it peaked in sixth decade of life, but P53 had trend to show unimodal distribution pattern that peaked in sixth decade of life, but this findings were not statistically significant (p>0.05).

Conclusions: Our breast cancer patients were generally younger than patients round the world. The different distribution pattern of biomarkers in our studies in comparison with similar studies, may suggest different biologic behavior of breast cancer in our patients. Further studies will help illuminate this point.

Keywords: Age groups, Biological tumor markers, Breast Neoplasms, Pathology, Iran.
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Angular Variation of Applicators in LDR-ICBT
Pages 23-29
A.S. Kirthi Koushik, Ram Alva, M.G. Janaki and Arul Ponni
Published: 26 January 2017

Abstract: Effect of angular variation to dose received and its clinical correlation was studied in 36 ca.cervix patients. Angular variation results in dose variation but its impact needs to be studied.

Keywords: CA Cervix, LDR ICBT, Angular variation.
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