Diamond deposition on graphite in hydrogen microwave plasma

Kaili Yao, Bing Dai, Victor Ralchenko, Guoyang Shu, Jiwen Zhao, Kang Liu, Lei Yang, Andrey Bolshakov, Jiecai Han, Jiaqi Zhu

Abstract


Hydrogen plasma etching of graphite generates radicals that can be used for diamond synthesis by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). We studied the etching of polycrystalline graphite by a hydrogen microwave plasma, growth of diamond particles of the non-seeded graphite substrates, and characterized the diamond morphology, grain size distribution, growth rate, and phase purity. The graphite substrates served simultaneously as a carbon source, this being the specific feature of the process. A disorder of the graphite surface structure reduces as the result of the etching as revealed with Raman spectroscopy. The diamond growth rate of 3 – 5 µm/h was achieved, the quality of the produced diamond grains improving with growth time due to inherently nonstationary graphite etching process.


Keywords


microwave plasma, diamond deposition, hydrogen plasma, graphite, etching

References


E. Fuentes-Fernandez, J. Alcantar-Peña, G. Lee, et al. Synthesis and characterization of microcrystalline diamond to ultrananocrystalline diamond films via Hot Filament Chemical Vapor Deposition for scaling to large area applications. Thin Solid Films 2016; 603: 62-68.

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0040609016000614

Y.-K. Tzeng, J.L. Zhang, H. Lu, et al. Vertical-Substrate MPCVD Epitaxial Nanodiamond Growth. Nano Lett. 2017; 17: 1489-1495.

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.nanolett.6b04543

I. Villalpando, P. John, S. Porro, J. Wilson. Deposition of polycrystalline and nanocrystalline diamond on graphite: effects of surface pre-treatments. Appl. Phys. A 2017; 123: 183.

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00339-017-0819-3

S.-D. Shin, N.M. Hwang, D.-Y. Kim. High rate of diamond deposition through graphite etching in a hot filament CVD reactor. Diam. Relat. Mater. 2002; 11: 1337-1343.

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0925963501006719

Q. Yang, W. Chen, C. Xiao, R. Sammynaiken, A. Hirose. Synthesis of diamond films and nanotips through graphite etching. Carbon 2005; 43: 748-754.

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0008622304006621

Q. Yang, W. Chen, C. Xiao, A. Hirose, M. Bradley. Low temperature synthesis of diamond thin films through graphite etching in a microwave hydrogen plasma. Carbon 2005; 43: 2635-2638.

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S000862230500271X

X. Lu, Q. Yang, C. Xiao, A. Hirose. Effects of hydrogen flow rate on the growth and field electron emission characteristics of diamond thin films synthesized through graphite etching. Diam. Relat. Mater. 2007; 16: 1623-1627.

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0925963507001719

W.d.M. Silva, N.G. Ferreira, J. Travello, E.C. Almeida, A.F. Azevedo, M.R. Baldan. Dependence of diamond nucleation and growth through graphite etching at different temperatures. Diam. Relat. Mater. 2007; 16: 1705-1710.

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0925963507002634

X. Lu, Q. Yang, C. Xiao, A. Hirose, T. Tiedje. Synthesis and field electron emission characteristics of diamond multilayer films grown by graphite etching. J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 2007; 40: 4010.

http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/0022-3727/40/13/015/meta

M. Salvadori, J. Ager III, I. Brown, K. Krishnan. Diamond synthesis by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition using graphite as the carbon source. Appl. Phys. Lett. 1991; 59: 2386-2388.

http://aip.scitation.org/doi/abs/10.1063/1.106024

C.J. Tang, A.J. Neves, A.J.S. Fernandes. Influence of nucleation density on film quality, growth rate and morphology of thick CVD diamond films. Diam. Relat. Mater. 2003; 12: 1488-1494.

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0925963503001791

K. Yao, B. Dai, J. Zhu, et al. Diamond micropowder synthesis via graphite etching in a microwave hydrogen plasma. Powder Technol. 2017; 32: 124-130.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0032591017307374

Q. Huang, Q. Lei, Q. Deng, et al. Raman spectra and modulus measurement on the cross section of proton-irradiated graphite. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms 2017; 412: 221-226.

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168583X17308388#f0005

C. Kanai, K. Watanabe, Y. Takakuwa. Ab initio calculations on etching of graphite and diamond surfaces by atomic hydrogen. Phys. Rev. B 2001; 63: 235311.

https://journals.aps.org/prb/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevB.63.235311

I. Vlasov, E. Goovaerts, V. Ralchenko, V. Konov, A. Khomich, M. Kanzyuba. Vibrational properties of nitrogen-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond films grown by microwave plasma CVD. Diam. Relat. Mater. 2007; 16: 2074-2077.

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0925963507003056

F.M. Shakhov, A.M. Abyzov, K. Takai. Boron doped diamond synthesized from detonation nanodiamond in a C-O-H fluid at high pressure and high temperature. J. Solid State Chem. 2017; 256: 72-92.

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022459617303134

K. Reinhold-López, A. Braeuer, B. Romann, N. Popovska-Leipertz, A. Leipertz. In situ Raman monitoring of the formation and growth of carbon nanotubes via chemical vapor deposition. Procedia Engineering 2015; 102: 190-200.

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877705815001277

Y. Harada, R. Hishinuma, C. Terashima, et al. Rapid growth of diamond and its morphology by in-liquid plasma CVD. Diam. Relat. Mater. 2016; 63: 12-16.

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0925963515300595#f0035

A. Bolshakov, V. Ralchenko, V. Yurov, et al. High-rate growth of single crystal diamond in microwave plasma in CH4/H2 and CH4/H2/Ar gas mixtures in presence of intensive soot formation. Diam. Relat. Mater. 2016; 62: 49-57.

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0925963515301011

S.-T. Lee, Z. Lin, X. Jiang. CVD diamond films: nucleation and growth. Materials Science and Engineering: R: Reports 1999; 25: 123-154.

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0927796X99000030

J. Guo, C. Li, J. Liu, et al. Structural evolution of Ti destroyable interlayer in large-size diamond film deposition by DC arc plasma jet. Appl. Surf. Sci. 2016; 370: 237-242.

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169433216303361

J . Guo, J. Liu, C. Hua, et al. Interfacial stress evolution simulation on the graphite substrate/interlayer/diamond film during the cooling process. Diam. Relat. Mater. 2017; 75; 12-17.

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0925963516304642


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


ISSN: 2369-3355