Application of Membrane Technology to Slaughterhouse Blood to Produce Edible Powdered Protein Mixture

Maria I. Kokkora, Konstantinos B. Petrotos, Paschalis E. Gkoutsidis, Christos Mpoulmpos


Animal blood generated from slaughtered animals is often released into the environment resulting in significant pollution and also in the loss of a valuable protein source. This study aimed at developing a procedure that will allow for utilizing animal blood for protein powders production on an industrial scale. To meet this goal, hygienically collected animal blood was first treated with membrane technology: microfiltration (MF) or ultrafiltration (UF). A ceramic MF membrane and a PCI UF membrane were used. Average MF flux was 6.62 kg h-1 m-2 at transmembrane pressure of 2.5 bar. Average UF flux was 3.55 kg h-1 m-2 at transmembrane pressure of 4 bar. MF succeeded in separating the blood plasma proteins (permeate) from the red cell fraction (retentate). UF concentrated both the red cell and blood plasma proteins in a single sample (retentate). The volume ratio of retentate to permeate was 10:14 and 14:10, for the MF and UF, respectively. A membrane cleaning regime was developed. The treated blood fractions were then freeze dried and red and white protein powders were produced successfully. The potential of a SME (small-medium enterprise) to apply this procedure into practice is presented.


Animal blood, ultrafiltration, microfiltration, freeze drying, red protein powder mixture, white protein powder mixture.

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ISSN: 1929-6037