Nano-Metal Stability and its Outcomes

Authors

  • Michael Vigdorowitsch Angara GmbH, 40470 Düsseldorf, Germany; All-Russian Scientific Research Institute for the Use of Machinery and Oil Products in Agriculture, 392022 Tambov, Russia and Tambov State Technical University, 392000 Tambov, Russia https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6019-6904

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.6000/1929-5030.2022.11.04

Keywords:

Thermodynamic potential, nanoparticle, dispersing, stability, surface tension, vacancy, crystal

Abstract

A thermodynamics-based approach to determining stability conditions for metallic nano-ensembles is proposed. It is related to that [ultra-]dispersing the substance leads to changes in thermodynamic potentials (TPs) compared to those of a massive crystal of the same nature. This dimensional phenomenon consists of two components. Among those are a reduction of TPs due to vacancy-related effects and an increase of TPs due to the surface tension effect. Even linear, exponential, and normal distributions of particles on their size in the ensemble have been considered. The resulting equations have been applied to the nano-ensembles of either In or Au particles. The presence of ultra-small particles in an ensemble makes the vacancy-related effect more apparent than the surface tension effect, promoting system stability. With the decrease in the number of ultra-small particles, the vacancy-related effect drastically diminishes and can yield to the surface tension effect, thereby leading to the loss of stability.

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Published

2022-02-21

Issue

Section

Nanomaterials and Composites in Electrochemical Processes