Self-Reported Academic Performance and Lifestyle Habits of School Children in Japan

Authors

  • Jun Kohyama Tokyo Bay Urayasu Ichikawa Medical Center, 3-4-32 Toudaijima, Urayasu 279-0001, Chiba, Japan

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.6000/1929-4247.2017.06.03.1

Keywords:

Sleep, breakfast, constipation, social jet lag, physical activity, screen time

Abstract

A total of 2,114 completed questionnaires were analyzed. Factors examined included habits related to sleeping, eating, defecation, physical activity, and screen time, in addition to body mass index (BMI). Social jet lag (SJL) was calculated from sleeping factors and categorized into five groups according to its value: minus 1 or less (SJL 1), more than minus 1 and 0 or less (SJL 2), more than 0 and 1 or less (SJL 3), more than 1 and 2 or less (SJL 4), and more than 2 (SJL 5). The association between self-reported AP and other factors except for SJL was assessed by means of multinomial logistic regression analysis.

Results: Factors significantly associated with good self-reported AP included female gender, lower grade, less sleepiness, lower BMI, intake of breakfast, less constipation, early wake-up time during the weekend, and short screen time during the weekend. The mean self-reported AP of SJL 3 was better than that of both SJL 5 and SJL 1.

Conclusions: Self-reported AP was associated with gender, grade, BMI, sleep, breakfast, defecation, and screen time in children in grades 5 to 12 in Japan. It must be ensured that children take enough time to perform the indispensable human behaviors of sleeping, eating, defecation, and physical activity.

References

[1] Beebe DW, Field J, Miller MM, Miller LE, Le Blond E. Impact of multi-night experimentally induced short sleep on adolescent performance in a simulated classroom. Sleep; in press.
https://doi.org/10.1093/sleep/zsw035
[2] Stea TH, Knutsen T, Torstveit MK. Association between short time in bed, health-risk behaviors and poor academic achievement among Norwegian adolescents. Sleep Med 2014; 15: 666-71.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sleep.2014.01.019
[3] Dumuid D, Olds T, Martín-Fernández JA, Lewis LK, Cassidy L, Maher C. Academic performance and lifestyle behaviors in Australian school children: a cluster analysis. Health Educ Behav; in press
[4] Taheri S. The link between short sleep duration and obesity: we should recommend more sleep to prevent obesity. Arch Dis Child 2006; 91: 881-4.
https://doi.org/10.1136/adc.2005.093013
[5] Tovar A, Chui K, Hyatt RR, et al. Healthy lifestyle behaviors associated with overweight and obesity in US rural children. BMC Pediatr 2012; 12: 102.
https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2431-12-102
[6] Yamada M, Sekine M, Tatsuse T. Lifestyle and bowel movements in school children: results from the Toyama Birth Cohort Study. Pediatr Int 2017; 59: 604-13.
https://doi.org/10.1111/ped.13206
[7] Kohyama J. Self-reported academic performance and lifestyle habits of school children in Japan:a preliminary cross-sectional study. Exploratory Research and Hypothesis in Medicine; under submission
[8] American Academy of Sleep Medicine. The international classification of sleep disorders. 3rd ed. Westchester: American Academy of Sleep Medicine; 2014.
[9] Wittmann M, Dinich J, Merrow M, Roenneberg T. Social jet lag: misalignment of biological and social time. Chronobiol Int 2006; 23: 497-509.
https://doi.org/10.1080/07420520500545979
[10] Kohyama J, Anzai Y, Ono M, et al. Pediatric patients who visited a sleep clinic in a general hospital (in Japanese). Nihon Shounika Gakkai Zasshi 2017; 121: 256.
[11] Shih DQ, Kwan LY. All roads lead to Rome: Update on Rome III Criteria and new treatment options. Gastroenterol Rep 2007; 1: 56-65.
[12] Japan Society of School Health. Annual reports on health of children attending elementary schools and junior high sc-hools in 2014. Tokyo: Japan Society of School Health; 2016.
[13] Rosen JA, Porter SR, Rogers J. Understanding student self-reports of academic performance and course-taking behavior. AERA Open 2017; 3: 1-14.
https://doi.org/10.1177/2332858417711427
[14] Kuncel NR, Crede M, Thomas LL. The validity of self-reported grade point averages, class ranks, and test scores: A meta-analysis and review of the literature. Rev Educ Res 2005; 75: 63-82.
https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543075001063
[15] Ratelle CF, Duchesne S. Trajectories of psychological need satisfaction from early to late adolescence as a predictor of adjustment in school. Contemp Educ Psych 2014; 39: 388-400.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2014.09.003
[16] Guo J, Marsh HW, Morin AJS, Parker PD, Kaur G. Directionality of the associations of high school expectancy value, aspirations, and attainment: A longitudinal study. Am Educ Res J 2015; 52: 371-402.
https://doi.org/10.3102/0002831214565786
[17] Yeager DS, Romero C, Paunesku D, et al. Using design thinking to make psychological interventions ready for scaling: The case of the growth mindset during the transition to high school. J Educ Psychol 2016; 108: 374-91.
https://doi.org/10.1037/edu0000098
[18] Burt C, Moore RC. The mental differences between the sexes J Exp Pedagogy 1912; 273-84: 355-88.
[19] Halpen DF. Sex differences in cognitive abilities. 4th ed. New York: Psychology Press; 2012.
[20] Stockard LV, Bell JC. A preliminary study of the measuring of abilities in geometry. J Educ Psychol 1916; 7: 567-80.
https://doi.org/10.1037/h0069838
[21] Geary DC. Sexual selection and sex differences in mathematical abilities. Behav Brain Sci 1996; 19: 229-47.
https://doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X00042400
[22] Stoet G, Geary DC. Sex differences in academic achievement are not related to political, economic, or social equality. Intelligence 2015; 48: 137-51.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intell.2014.11.006
[23] Robins RW, Trzesniewski KH. Self-esteem development across the lifespan. Curr Direc Psychol Sci 2005; 14: 158-62.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0963-7214.2005.00353.x
[24] Carskadon M, Dement WC. Normal human sleep: an overview. In: Principles and practice of sleep medicine. 6th ed. Elsevier 2017; pp. 15-24.
https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-323-24288-2.00002-7
[25] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sleep>Basics about sleep> How much sleep do I need? [cited 2017 July 24]. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/sleep/about_sleep/ how_much_sleep.html
[26] Mindell JA, Owens J, Alves R, et al. Give children and adolescents the gift of a good night’s sleep: a call to action. Sleep Med 2011; 12: 203-4.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sleep.2011.01.003
[27] Schlarb AA, Sopp R, Ambiel D, Grünwald J. Chronotype-related differences in childhood and adolescent aggression and antisocial behavior: a review of the literature. Chronobiol Int 2014; 31: 1-16.
https://doi.org/10.3109/07420528.2013.829846
[28] Yokomaku A, Misao K, Omoto F, et al. A study of the association between sleep habits and problematic behaviors in preschool children. Chronobiol Int 2008; 25: 549-64.
https://doi.org/10.1080/07420520802261705
[29] Osonoi Y, Mita, T, Osonoi T, et al. Morningness-eveningness questionnaire score and metabolic parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Chronobiol Int 2014; 31: 1017-23.
https://doi.org/10.3109/07420528.2014.943843
[30] Greer SM, Goldstein AN, Walker MP. The impact of sleep deprivation on food desire in the human brain. Nat Commun 2013; 4: 2259.
https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms3259
[31] Ma N, Dinges DF, Basner M, Rao H. How acute total sleep loss affects the attending brain: a meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies. Sleep 2015; 38: 233-40.
https://doi.org/10.5665/sleep.4404
[32] Kohyama J. Obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension and sleep in the child. Int Child Health Nutrit 2012; 1: 23-7.
https://doi.org/10.6000/1929-4247.2012.01.01.03
[33] Urrila AS, Artiges E, Massicotte J, et al. Sleep habits, academic performance, and the adolescent brain structure. Sci Rep 2017; 7: 41678.
https://doi.org/10.1038/srep41678
[34] Taki Y, Hashizume H, Thyreau B, et al. Sleep duration during weekdays affects hippocampal gray matter volume in healthy children. Neuroimage 2012; 60: 471-5.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.11.072
[35] The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. Results of research on relationship between lifestyle habits and self-reliance of children. [cited 2017 July 24]. Available from: http://www.mext.go.jp/a_menu/shougai/ katei/__icsFiles/afieldfile/2015/04/30/1357460_01_1_1.pdf(in Japanese)
[36] Doi Y, Ishihara K, Uchiyama M. Associations of chronotype with social jetlag and behavioral problems in preschool children. Chronobiol Int 2015; 32: 1101-8.
https://doi.org/10.3109/07420528.2015.1063503
[37] Komada Y, Breugelmans R, Drake CL, et al. Social jetlag affects subjective daytime sleepiness in school-aged children and adolescents: A study using the Japanese version of the Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale (PDSS-J). Chronobiol Int 2016; 33: 1311-9.
https://doi.org/10.1080/07420528.2016.1213739
[38] Díaz-Morales JF, Escribano C. Social jetlag, academic achievement and cognitive performance: Understanding gender/sex differences. Chronobiol Int 2015; 32: 822-31.
https://doi.org/10.3109/07420528.2015.1041599
[39] Levandovski R, Dantas G, Fernandes LC, et al. Depression scores associate with chronotype and social jet lag in a rural population. Chronobiol Int 2011; 28: 771-8.
https://doi.org/10.3109/07420528.2011.602445

Downloads

Published

2017-09-11

Issue

Section

General Articles