Nutritional Status among Children under Five Years in Amman, Jordan

Authors

  • Mohammad El Azhari Jordan Field Epidemiology Training Program, Jordan Ministry of Health, Jordan
  • Ahmad Abu Slaih Jordan Ministry of Health/ Amman, Jordan
  • Yousef S. Khader Department of Community Medicine, Public Health and Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine/ Jordan University of Science & Technology, Irbid 22110, Jordan
  • Abdulhalim Al-Musa Jordan Ministry of Health/ Amman, Jordan
  • Ibrahim Iblan Jordan Field Epidemiology Training Program, Jordan Ministry of Health, Jordan

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.6000/1929-4247.2017.06.03.4

Keywords:

Malnutrition, stunting, wasting, undernutrition

Abstract

Objectives: There is scarcity of data on malnutrition among children in Jordan. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the nutritional status and estimate the prevalence rates of stunting, underweight, and wasting and their associated factors among children under five.

Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between January and April 2017 among children under five years in Amman, Jordan. All Jordanian children under five years who visited the selected health centers for vaccination or accompanied their mothers during the study period were included in this study. Mothers or caregivers of children were interviewed face-to face using the study questionnaire. Weight in kilograms and height in centimeters were measured for all children. Anthropometric indices were calculated using reference medians recommended by the World Health Organization.

Results: This study included a total of 923 (463 boys and 460 girls) children. The prevalence rates of stunting, underweight, and wasting were 6.2%, 3.8%, and 2.8%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that low birth weight was significantly associated with stunting (OR = 2.9, 95% CI: 1.4,6.0; p-value=0.003) and underweight (OR =5.6, 95% CI: 2.5,12.3, p-value <0.001). Compared to exclusive breastfeeding, mixed feeding was associated with increased odds of stunting (OR =2, 95% CI: 1.1-3.9, p-value =0.029) and underweight (OR = 2.2, 95% CI: 1.002, 5.0; p = 0.049). None of the variables were significantly associated with wasting.

Conclusions: The prevalence rates of stunting, wasting and undernutrition among children under five years in Jordan are low. Low birth weight and mixed feeding were associated with higher rates of malnutrition.

References

[1] Demissie S, Worku A. Magnitude and factors associated with malnutrition in children 6-59 months of age in pastoral community of Dollo Ado District, Somali Region, Ethiopia. Sci J Public Health 2013; 1: 175-83.
https://doi.org/10.11648/j.sjph.20130104.12
[2] Masibo PK, Makoka D. Trends and determinants of undernutrition among young Kenyan children: Kenya Demographic and Health Survey; 1993, 1998, 2003 and 2008-2009. Public Health Nutr 2012; 15: 1715-27.
https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980012002856
[3] Pasricha SR, Biggs BA. Undernutrition among children in South and South-East Asia. J Paediatr Child Health 2010; 46: 497-503.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1754.2010.01839.x
[4] Meshram II, Arlappa N, Balakrishna N, Mallikharjuna Rao K, Laxmaiah A, Brahmam GN. Trends in the prevalence of undernutrition, nutrient and food intake and predictors of undernutrition among under five year tribal children in India. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2012; 21(4): 568-76.
[5] Ali SS. A brief review of risk-factors for growth and developmental delay among preschool children in developing countries. Adv Biomed Res 2013; 2: 91.
https://doi.org/10.4103/2277-9175.122523
[6] Williams AM, Suchdev PS. Assessing and Improving Childhood Nutrition and Growth Globally. Pediatr Clin North Am 2017; 64(4): 755-768.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pcl.2017.03.001
[7] Nyaradi A, Li J, Hickling S, Foster J, Oddy WH. The role of nutrition in children's neurocognitive development, from pregnancy through childhood. Front Hum Neurosci. 2013; 7: 97.
https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2013.00097
[8] Jamison DT, Breman JG, Measham AR, et al. Disease control priorities in developing countries. 2nd edition. Washington (DC): The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank; New York: Oxford University Press 2006.
[9] United Nations Children’s Fund, World Health Organization, The World Bank. UNICEFWHO-World Bank Joint Child Malnutrition Estimates. (UNICEF, New York; WHO, Geneva; The World Bank, Washington, DC; 2012).
[10] Farag O, Eladawi N, Abdel-baky A, Abdel-gawad A. Assessment of Nutritional Status of Under 5 Years Rural Children in Delta Region in Egypt. Aust J Basic & Appl Sci 2014; 8(15): 53-59.
[11] Abdeen Z, Greenough PG, Chandran A, Qasrawi R. Assessment of the nutritional status of preschool-age children during the second Intifada in Palestine. Food Nutr Bull 2007; 28(3): 274-82.
https://doi.org/10.1177/156482650702800303
[12] Salah M. Factors that affect the nutritional status of children aged 9-18 months in East Jerusalem. [cited 2017 August 1]. Available from: https://scholar.najah.edu/sites/default/files/all-thesis/factors_that_affect_the_nutritional_status_of_children_aged_9-18_months_in_east_jerusalem.pdf
[13] Mohammed R. Assessment of nutritional status among children under five years in Northern Valley-Jordan. [cited 2017 August 1]. Available from: https://theses.ju.edu.jo/ Show_Abstract.aspx?par1=JUF0642373?Page=2
[14] de Onis M, Blössner M, Borghi E.Prevalence and trends of stunting among pre-school children, 1990-2020. Public Health Nutr 2012; 15(1): 142-8.
https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980011001315
[15] UNICEF / WHO / World Bank Group Joint Child Malnutrition Estimates. Levels and trends in child malnutrition. Key findings of the 2017 edition. Available at https: //data.unicef.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/JME-2017_brochure_June-25.pdf
[16] WHO. Global Database on Child Growth and Malnutrition. [cited 2017 August 1]. Available from: http: //www.who.int/nutgrowthdb/about/introduction/en/index5.htm
[17] de Onis M, Onyango A, Borghi E, Siyam A, Blössner M, Lutter C; WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study Group. Worldwide implementation of the WHO Child Growth Standards. Public Health Nutr 2012; 15(9): 1603.
https://doi.org/10.1017/S136898001200105X
[18] Babatunde RO. Prevalence and determinants of malnutrition among under-five children of farming households in Kwara state, Nigeria J Agric Sci 2011; 3: s3.
https://doi.org/10.5539/jas.v3n3p173
[19] Manyike PC, Chinawa JM, Ubesie A, Obu HA, Odetunde OI, Chinawa AT. Prevalence of malnutrition among pre-school children in South-east Nigeria. Ital J Pediatr 2014; 40: 75.
https://doi.org/10.1186/s13052-014-0075-5
[20] Dhar B, Mowlah G, Nahar S, Islam N. Birth weight status of newborns and its relationship with other anthropometric parameters in a public maternity hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh. J Health Popul Nutr 2002; 20: 36-41
[21] Wong HJ, Moy FM, Nair S. Risk factors of malnutrition among preschool children in Terengganu, Malaysia: a casecontrol study. BMC Public Health 2014; 14: 785.
https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-14-785
[22] Correia LL, Silva AC, Campos JS, Andrade FM, Machado MM, Lindsay AC, et al. Prevalence and determinants of child undernutrition and stunting in semiarid region of Brazil. Revista De Saude Publica 2014; 48: 19-28.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-8910.2014048004828
[23] Romero CX, Duke JK, Dabelea D, Romero TE, Ogden LG. Does the epidemiologic paradox hold in the presence of risk factors for low birth weightinfants among Mexican-born women in Colorado? J Health Care Poor Underserved 2012; 23(2): 604-14.
https://doi.org/10.1353/hpu.2012.0065
[24] Adekanmbi VT, Kayode GA, Uthman OA. Individual and contextual factors associated with childhood stunting in Nigeria: a multilevel analysis. Matern Child Nutr 2013; 9(2): 244-59.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1740-8709.2011.00361.x
[25] Baig-Ansari N, Rahbar MH, Bhutta ZA, Badruddin SH. Child's gender and household food insecurity are associated with stunting among young Pakistani children residing in urban squatter settlements. Food Nutr Bull 2006; 27(2): 114.
https://doi.org/10.1177/156482650602700203

Downloads

Published

2017-09-11

Issue

Section

General Articles