Parental Knowledge of Malnutrition as a Cause of Infant and Child Mortality Rate in Torbu Community, Sierra Leone

Authors

  • Alieu Tommy Health Education Division, Ministry of Health and Sanitation, New England Ville, Central Medical Stores, Sierra Leone
  • Taha Hussein Musa Biomedical Research Institute, Darfur College, Nyala, Sudan
  • Joseph Kawuk
  • Upama Ghimire Key Laboratory of Environmental Medicine Engineering, Ministry of Education, Global Health School of Public Health, Southeast University, Nanjing, 210009, Jiangsu Province, China
  • Nathan Obore Key Laboratory of Environmental Medicine Engineering, Ministry of Education, Global Health School of Public Health, Southeast University, Nanjing, 210009, Jiangsu Province, China
  • Shireen Salome Papabathini Key Laboratory of Environmental Medicine Engineering, Ministry of Education, Global Health School of Public Health, Southeast University, Nanjing, 210009, Jiangsu Province, China
  • Lovel Fornah Key Laboratory of Environmental Medicine Engineering, Ministry of Education, Global Health School of Public Health, Southeast University, Nanjing, 210009, Jiangsu Province, China

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.6000/1929-4247.2020.09.02.4

Keywords:

Parental knowledge, Malnutrition, Child mortality, Bo city.

Abstract

Malnutrition is a significant public health problem over the world, with severe impact in developing countries, including Asia and Africa. This paper present to assess malnutrition as a cause of infant and child mortality rate in Torbu community in Bo city, Sierra Leone. We used a community-based cross-sectional survey. A total of 80 mothers with children of under five years were selected using convenience sampling from the different divisions of Bo city. The findings showed that 48 (60%) of the respondents have never been sensitized nor have any knowledge about Malnutrition, of which 16 (50%) were informed via radio while 50 (63%) were not aware of any nutrition facility around the community. Besides, 56 (70%) of the respondents did not practice exclusive breastfeeding, 64 (80%) fed their children on only carbohydrates mainly in the form of rice, and 26 (32.5%) had one meal per day. 64 (80%) reported their children to have been admitted due to malnutrition (with mainly protein-energy malnutrition), while over a half 46 (57%) reported having lost a child to malnutrition. Thus, we recommended more nutrition education to address the poor Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) practices as well as targeted health interventions to mitigate the devastating effects of child malnutrition in the district.

References

[1] UNICEF global databases Infant and Young Child Feeding, UNICEF/WHO/World Bank Group: Joint child malnutrition estimates, UNICEF/WHO Low birthweight estimates, NCD Risk Factor Collaboration, WHO Global Health Observatory. Available from: https://www.who.int/nutgrowthdb/en/.
[2] Vaivada T, Gaffey MF, Das JK, Bhutta ZA. Evidence-based interventions for improvement of maternal and child nutrition in low-income settings: what's new?. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care 2017; 20(3): 204-10.
https://doi.org/10.1097/MCO.0000000000000365

[3] Rice AL, Sacco L, Hyder A, Black RE. Malnutrition as an underlying cause of childhood deaths associated with infectious diseases in developing countries. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2000; 78: 1207-21.
[4] Odjidja EN, Hakizimana S. Data on acute malnutrition and mortality among under-5 children of pastoralists in a humanitarian setting: a cross-sectional Standardized Monitoring and Assessment of Relief and Transitions Study. BMC Research Notes 2019; 12(1): 434.
https://doi.org/10.1186/s13104-019-4475-x
[5] UNICEF, WHO, and World Bank, “Levels and Trends in Child malnutrition,” 2018. Available from: https://www.un.org/en/ development/desa/population/publications/mortality/child-mortality-report-2018.asp.
[6] World Health Organization. World health statistics 2019: monitoring health for the SDGs, sustainable development goals. Available from: https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/ handle/10665/324835/9789241565707-eng.pdf.
[7] UNICEF 2019. The State of the World's Children, 2019. Available from: https://www.unicef.org/reports/state-of-worlds-children-2019.
[8] Tarekegn SM, Lieberman LS, Giedraitis V. Determinants of maternal health service utilization in Ethiopia: analysis of the 2011 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2014; 14(1): 161.
https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2393-14-161
[9] Mosley WH, Chen LC. An analytical framework for the study of child survival in developing countries. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2003; 81: 140-5.
[10] Butte NF, Lopez-Alarcon MG, Garza C. Nutrient adequacy of exclusive breastfeeding for the term infant during the first six months of life. World Health Organization 2002.
[11] Ijumba P, Doherty T, Jackson D, Tomlinson M, Sanders D, Swanevelder S, Persson LÅ. Effect of an integrated community-based package for maternal and newborn care on feeding patterns during the first 12 weeks of life: a cluster-randomized trial in a South African township. Public health Nutrition 2015; 18(14): 2660-8.
https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980015000099
[12] Black RE, Victora CG, Walker SP, Bhutta ZA, Christian P, De Onis M, Ezzati M, Grantham-McGregor S, Katz J, Martorell R, Uauy R. Maternal and child undernutrition and overweight in low-income and middle-income countries. The Lancet 2013; 382(9890): 427-51.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(13)60937-X
[13] Joseph K, Musa TH, Pherry O. Dietary practices, WASH conditions, and disease occurrence among children below five years in households of Nangabo, Wakiso district, Uganda. Scientific African 2020; 25: e00291.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sciaf.2020.e00291
[14] Hoa NN, Hien NN. Nutritional Status and Determinants of Malnutrition in Children under Three Years of Age in Nghean, Vietnam.
[15] Amsalu S, Tigabu Z. Risk factors for severe acute malnutrition in children under the age of five: a case control study. Gondar, Ethiopia: Ethiop. J Health Dev 2008; 22(1).
https://doi.org/10.4314/ejhd.v22i1.10058
[16] Nnyepi M, Mmopelwa D, Codjia P. Child nutrition and household economic situation in the context of rising food prices in Mabutsane and Bobirwa (in Maundeni T. P (Ed). Thari ya Bana: Reflections on Children in Botswana in Gaborone, Botswana: UB and UNICEF) 2010.
[17] Schwinger C, Golden MH, Grellety E, Roberfroid D, Guesdon B. Severe acute malnutrition and mortality in children in the community: Comparison of indicators in a multi-country pooled analysis. PloS One 2019; 14(8).
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0219745
[18] Turyashemererwa FM, Kikafunda JK, Agaba E. Prevalence of early childhood malnutrition and influencing factors in peri urban areas of Kabarole district, western Uganda. African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development 2009; 9(4).
https://doi.org/10.4314/ajfand.v9i4.43872
[19] Mahgoub SEO, Nnyepi M, Bandeke T. Factors affecting prevalence of malnutrition among children under three years of age in Botswana. African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development 2006; 6: 1-15.
https://doi.org/10.4314/ajfand.v6i1.19171
[20] Roba KT, O’Connor TP, Belachew T, O’Brien NM. Infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices among mothers of children aged 6–23 months in two agro-ecological zones of rural Ethiopia. Int J Nutr Food Sci 2016; 5(3): 185-94.
https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijnfs.20160503.16
[21] Müller O, Krawinkel M. Malnutrition and health in developing countries. CMAJ 2005; 173(3): 279-86.
https://doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.050342
[22] Adebisi YA, Ibrahim K, Lucero-Prisno III DE, Ekpenyong A, Micheal AI, Chinemelum IG, Sina-Odunsi AB. Prevalence and Socio-economic Impacts of Malnutrition Among Children in Uganda. Nutrition and Metabolic Insights 2019.
https://doi.org/10.1177/1178638819887398
[23] Gebre A, Reddy PS, Mulugeta A, Sedik Y, Kahssay M. Prevalence of malnutrition and associated factors among under-five children in pastoral communities of afar regional state, Northeast Ethiopia: A community-based cross-sectional study. Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism 2019; 2019.
https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/9187609
[24] Caulfield LE, de Onis M, Blössner M, Black RE. Undernutrition as an underlying cause of child deaths associated with diarrhea, pneumonia, malaria, and measles. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2004 1; 80(1): 193-8.
https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/80.1.193
[25] Musa Taha H, Musa Hassan H, Ali Elrasheed A, Musa Nazik E. Prevalence of malnutrition among children under five years old in Khartoum State, Sudan. Polish Ann Med 2014.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.poamed.2014.01.001

Downloads

Published

2020-06-02

Issue

Section

General Articles