Nutritional and Therapeutic Potential of Allium Vegetables


  • Ravi Kant Upadhyay Department of Zoology, D D U Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur 273009, U.P., India



Allium vegetables, antioxidant, cytotoxic, polyphenols, allicin, quercetin


Allium vegetables are highly nutritional, its dietary use improves digestion and mental health and lower down cholesterol level. Use of onions, garlic, scallions, chives and leeks show therapeutic efficacy against cardiovascular disease, hyperglycemia, and stomach cancer, Onions contain allylsulfides and flavonoids particularly quercetin that is an important anti-oxidative and reduces hepatocytes apoptosis in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat. Steroid saponins and sapogenins present in garlic bulbs are used to prepare soft soaps. β-chlorogenin is a characteristic steroid sapogenin from garlic that is used for skin ointment and as a shiner. Both garlic paste and soft garlic preparations are used for flavoring the food items. Garlic products that contain the most safe, effective, stable, and odorless components are the most valuable as dietary supplements. Garlic also contains non sulfur compounds such as steroid saponins. Alliums showed antimicrobial, antithrombotic, antitumor, anti-hyperlipidaemic, antiarthritic, anti-hyperglycemic anticarcinogenic potential. Allium vegetables contain organosulfur compounds, including DATS, diallyl disulfide (DADS), ajoene, and S-allylmercaptocysteine (SAMC), have been found to induce cell cycle arrest in cancer cells. Alliums have great ethnomedicinal importance as these are used as native remedies against wide spectrum of diseases including diabetes. Allium origin natural products are of great therapeutic and dietary use. These are most preferred items used by nutritionists, physicians, food technologists, food chemists. Green allium vegetables are good source of natural pharmaceutics which are good for health and act against nutritionally induced acute and chronic diseases. Their possible inclusion in diets could explore new therapeutic avenues to enhance immunity against diseases.


Sengupta A, et al. Allium vegetables in cancer prevention: an overview 2004; 5(3): 237-45.

Rocio MC, Rion JL. A review of some antimicrobial substances isolated from medicinal plants reported in the literature review of phytochemical analysis on garlic 1978 – 1972. Phytother Rev 1982; 3: 117-25.

Alli JA, et al. In-vitro assessments of the effects of garlic (Allium sativum) extract on clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Adv Appl Sci Res 20112; 2: 25-36.

Chu YL, et al. Autophagy therapeutic potential of garlic in human cancer therapy. J Tradit Complement Med 2013; 3: 159-62.

Block E. The chemistry of garlic and onions. Sci Am 1985; 252: 114-9.

Sultan MT, et al. Immunity: Plants as effective mediators. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2014; 54: 1298-308.

Butt MS, et al. Garlic: Nature's protection against physiological threats. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2009; 49: 538-51.

Hahm ER, Singh SV. Diallyl trisulfide inhibits estrogen receptor-α activity in human breast cancer cells. Breast Cancer Res Treat 2014; 144: 47-57.

Quintero-Fabián S, et al. Alliin, a garlic (Allium sativum) compound, prevents LPS-induced inflammation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Mediators Inflamm 2013; 2013: 381815.

Khuda-Bukhsh AR, et al. Molecular approaches toward targeted cancer prevention with some food plants and their products: Inflammatory and other signal pathways. Nutr Cancer 2014; 66: 194-205.

Xu YS, et al. S-allylcysteine, a garlic derivative, suppresses proliferation and induces apoptosis in human ovarian cancer cells in vitro. Acta Pharmacol Sin 2014; 35: 267-74.

Shin DY, et al. Inhibiting invasion into human bladder carcinoma 5637 cells with diallyl trisulfide by inhibiting matrix metalloproteinase activities and tightening tight junctions. Int J Mol Sci 2013; 14: 19911-22.

Borkowska A, et al. Diallyl trisulfide is more cytotoxic to prostate cancer cells PC-3 than to noncancerous epithelial cell line PNT1A: A possible role of p66Shc signaling axis. Nutr Cancer 2013; 65: 711-7.

Zhang CL, et al. Garlic oil attenuated nitrosodiethylamine-induced hepatocarcinogenesis by modulating the metabolic activation and detoxification enzymes. Int J Biol Sci 2013; 9: 237-45.

Gail MH, et al. Garlic, vitamin, and antibiotic treatment for Helicobacter pylori: A randomized factorial controlled trial. Helicobacter 2007; 12: 575-8.

Zhang YK, et al. A proteomic study on a human osteosarcoma cell line Saos-2 treated with diallyl trisulfide. Anticancer Drugs 2009; 20: 702-12.

Fenwick GR, Hanley AB. Allium species poisoning. Vet Rec 1985; 516: 28.

Yun HM, et al. Potential therapeutic effects of functionally active compounds isolated from garlic. Pharmacol Ther 2014; 142: 183-95.

Williams FM, et al. Dietary garlic and hip osteoarthritis: Evidence of a protective effect and putative mechanism of action. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2010; 11: 280.

Dugo M, et al. Herbal remedies: Nephrotoxicity and drug interactions. G Ital Nefrol 2010; 27 Suppl 52: S5-9.

Zhou XF, et al. Allium vegetables and risk of prostate cancer: Evidence from 132,192 subjects. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2013; 14: 4131-4.

Zhu B, et al. Allium vegetables and garlic supplements do not reduce risk of colorectal cancer, based on meta-analysis of prospective studies. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2014; 12: 1991-2001.e1-4.

Lee J, et al. HPLC-MTT assay: Anticancer activity of aqueous garlic extract is from allicin. Anal Biochem 2013; 436: 187-9.

Tapiero H, et al. Organosulfur compounds from alliaceae in the prevention of human pathologies. Biomed Pharmacother 2004; 58: 183-93.

Blumenthal M. Herb Sales Down 7.4 Percent in Mainstream Market. Herbal Gram. Austin, Texas: American Botanical Council; 2005. p. 63.

Aviello G, et al. Garlic: Empiricism or science? Nat Prod Commun 2009; 4: 1785-96.

Berginc K, Kristl A. The mechanisms responsible for garlic - drug interactions and their in vivo relevance. Curr Drug Metab 2013; 14: 90-101.

Sabater-Molina M, et al. Dietary fructooligosaccharides and potential benefits on health. J Physiol Biochem 2009; 65: 315-28.

Khatua TN, et al. Garlic and cardioprotection: Insights into the molecular mechanisms. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 2013; 91: 448-58.

Keys A. Wine, garlic, and CHD in seven countries. Lancet 1980; 1: 145-6.

Campbell JH, et al. Molecular basis by which garlic suppresses atherosclerosis. J Nutr 2001; 131: 1006S-9.

Koscielny J, et al. The antiatherosclerotic effect of Allium sativum. Atherosclerosis 1999; 144: 237-49.

Sendl A, et al. Comparative pharmacological investigations of Allium ursinum and Allium sativum. Planta Med 1992; 58: 1-7.

Ali M. Mechanism by which garlic (Allium sativum) inhibits cyclooxygenase activity. Effect of raw versus boiled garlic extract on the synthesis of prostanoids. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 1995; 53: 397-400.

Arunkumar R, et al. Effect of diallyl disulfide on insulin-like growth factor signaling molecules involved in cell survival and proliferation of human prostate cancer cells in vitro and in silico approach through docking analysis. Phytomedicine 2012; 19: 912-23.

Chi MS. Effects of garlic products on lipid metabolism in cholesterol-fed rats (41494). Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1982; 171: 174-8.

Chi MS, et al. Effects of garlic on lipid metabolism in rats fed cholesterol or lard. J Nutr 1982; 112: 241-8.

Qureshi AA, et al. Inhibition of cholesterol and fatty acid biosynthesis in liver enzymes and chicken hepatocytes by polar fractions of garlic. Lipids 1983; 18: 343-8.

Qureshi AA, et al. Influence of minor plant constituents on porcine hepatic lipid metabolism. Impact on serum lipids. Atherosclerosis 1987; 64: 109-15.

Gebhardt R, et al. Inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis by allicin and ajoene in rat hepatocytes and HepG2 cells. Biochim Biophys Acta 1994; 1213: 57-62.

Yeh YY, Yeh SM. Garlic reduces plasma lipids by inhibiting hepatic cholesterol and triacylglycerol synthesis. Lipids 1994; 29: 189-93.

Gupta N, Porter TD. Garlic and garlic-derived compounds inhibit human squalene monooxygenase. J Nutr 2001; 131: 1662-7.

Yeh YY, Liu L. Cholesterol-lowering effect of garlic extracts and organosulfur compounds: Human and animal studies. J Nutr 2001; 131(3s): 989S-93S.

Gebhardt R, Beck H. Differential inhibitory effects of garlic-derived organosulfur compounds on cholesterol biosynthesis in primary rat hepatocyte cultures. Lipids 1996; 31: 1269-76.

Liu L, Yeh YY. Inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis by organosulfur compounds derived from garlic. Lipids 2000; 35: 197-203.

Bordia A, et al. Effect of garlic (Allium sativum) on blood lipids, blood sugar, fibrinogen and fibrinolytic activity in patients with coronary artery disease. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 1998; 58: 257-63.

Bordia A, Bansal HC. Letter: Essential oil of garlic in prevention of atherosclerosis. Lancet 1973; 2: 1491-2.

Dasgupta P, Bandyopadhyay SS. Role of di-allyl disulfide, a garlic component in NF-?B mediated transient G2-M phase arrest and apoptosis in human leukemic cell-lines. Nutr Cancer 2013; 65: 611-22.

Ferri N, et al. Ajoene, a garlic compound, inhibits protein prenylation and arterial smooth muscle cell proliferation. Br J Pharmacol 2003; 138: 811-8.

Chan KC, et al. Protective effect of three diallyl sulphides against glucose-induced erythrocyte and platelet oxidation, and ADP-induced platelet aggregation. Thromb Res 2002; 108: 317-22.

Lawson LD, et al. Inhibition of whole blood platelet-aggregation by compounds in garlic clove extracts and commercial garlic products. Thromb Res 1992; 65: 141-56.

Keiss HP, et al. Garlic (Allium sativum L.) modulates cytokine expression in lipopolysaccharide-activated human blood thereby inhibiting NF-kappaB activity. J Nutr 2003; 133: 2171-5.

Blake GJ, Ridker PM. C-reactive protein and other inflammatory risk markers in acute coronary syndromes. J Am Coll Cardiol 2003; 41 4 Suppl S: 37S-42.

Ali M, et al. Garlic and onions: Their effect on eicosanoid metabolism and its clinical relevance. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2000; 62: 55-73.

Liu L, Yeh YY. S-alk(en)yl cysteines of garlic inhibit cholesterol synthesis by deactivating HMG-CoA reductase in cultured rat hepatocytes. J Nutr 2002; 132: 1129-34.

Hedin U, et al. Control of smooth muscle cell proliferation in vascular disease. Curr Opin Lipidol 2004; 15: 559-65.

Banerjee SK, et al. Garlic as an antioxidant: The good, the bad and the ugly. Phytother Res 2003; 17: 97-106.

Dhawan V, Jain S. Effect of garlic supplementation on oxidized low density lipoproteins and lipid peroxidation in patients of essential hypertension. Mol Cell Biochem 2004; 266: 109-15.

Munday R, Munday CM. Low doses of diallyl disulfide, a compound derived from garlic, increase tissue activities of quinone reductase and glutathione transferase in the gastrointestinal tract of the rat. Nutr Cancer 1999; 34: 42-8.

Stewart ZA, Westfall MD, Pietenpol JA. Cell-cycle dysregulation and anticancer therapy. Trends Pharmacol Sci 2003; 24: 139-45.

Kantor ED, et al. Association between use of specialty dietary supplements and C-reactive protein concentrations. Am J Epidemiol 2012; 176: 1002-13.

Stanger MJ, et al. Anticoagulant activity of select dietary supplements. Nutr Rev 2012; 70: 107-17.

Brewster, James L. (1994). Onions and other vegetable Alliums (1st ed.). Wallingford, UK: CAB International. p. 16.

All about onions, National Onion Association. Retrieved 2013-03-24.Allium cepa L. USDA, NRCS 2007. The PLANTS Database (http: // , July 2010). National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.

Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (1968). Home Preservation of Fruit and Vegetables. HMSO. p. 107.

Mower, Chris. The difference between Yellow, White and red Onions. The Cooking Dish. Retrieved 2013-03-24.

Wang Y, et al. Inhibitory effects of onion (Allium cepa L.) extract on proliferation of cancer cells and adipocytes via

inhibiting fatty acid synthase. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2012; 13(11): 5573-9.

Mitra J, et al. Onion dehydration: a review. J Food Sci Technol 2012; 49(3): 267-77.

Weaver C, Marr ET. White vegetables: a forgotten source of nutrients: Purdue roundtable executive summary. Adv Nutr 2013 1; 4(3): 318S-26S.

Ribeiro MA, et al. Zinc absorption in Brazilian subjects fed a healthy meal. J Hum Nutr Diet 2014 ; 2: 313-20.

Gautam S, et al. Assessment of zinc deficiency and effect of dietary carrot, amchur and onion on zinc status during repletion in zinc-deficient rats. J Sci Food Agric 2012 Jan 15; 92(1): 165-70.

Siracusa L, et al. Re-evaluation of traditional Mediterranean foods. The local landraces of 'Cipolla di Giarratana' (Allium cepa L.) and long-storage tomato(Lycopersicon esculentum L.): quality traits and polyphenol content. J Sci Food Agric 2013 Nov; 93(14): 3512-9.

Abney KR, et al. UV-B radiation impacts shoot tissue pigment composition in Allium fistulosum L. cultigens. Scientific World Journal 2013; 31; 2013: 513867.

Jung JY, et al. Onion peel extracts ameliorate hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in high fat diet/streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Nutr Metab (Lond) 2011; 8(1): 18.

Inoue-Choi M, et al. Reality check: there is no such thing as a miracle food. Nutr Cancer 2013; 65(2): 165-8.

Krishnaswamy K. Traditional Indian spices and their health significance. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2008; 17 Suppl 1: 265-8.

Arai Y, et al. Dietary intakes of flavonols, flavones and isoflavones by Japanese women and the inverse correlation between quercetin intake and plasma LDL cholesterol concentration. J Nutr 2000; 130(9): 2243-50.

Myhre R, et al. Intakes of garlic and dried fruits are associated with lower risk of spontaneous preterm delivery. J Nutr 2013; 143(7): 1100-8.

Griffiths G, et al. Onions—a global benefit to health. Phytother Res 2002; 16(7): 603-615.

Anderson GH, et al. White vegetables: glycemia and satiety. Adv Nutr 2013; 4(3): 356S-67S.

Herrera A, et al. The effect of preparation of cebiche on the survival of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Aeromonas hydrophila, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. J Travel Med 2010; 17(6): 395-9.

Wang H, et al. Modified method for rapid quantitation of S-alk(en)yl-L-cysteine sulfoxide in yellow onions (Allium cepa L.). J Agric Food Chem 2007; 55(14): 5429-35.

Cooper RG, Chifamba J. The nutritional intake of undergraduates at the University of Zimbabwe College of Health Sciences. Tanzan J Health Res 2009; 11(1): 35-9.

Wang H, et al. Modified method for rapid quantitation of S-alk(en)yl-L-cysteine sulfoxide in yellow onions (Allium cepa L.). J Agric Food Chem 2007; 55(14): 5429-35.

Winning H, et al. An exploratory NMR nutri-metabonomic investigation reveals dimethyl sulfone as a dietary biomarker for onion intake. Analyst 2009; 134(11): 2344-51.

Pellegrini N, et al. Effect of domestic cooking methods on the total antioxidant capacity of vegetables. Int J Food Sci Nutr 2009; 60 Suppl 2: 12-22.

Owsikowski M, et al. Antioxidants content in selected conventionally and organically cultivated vegetables. Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig 2008; 59(2): 223-30.

Horiuchi J, et al. New vinegar production from onions. J Biosci Bioeng 1999; 88(1): 107-9.

Tang CH, et al. Water solution of onion crude powder inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis through ERK, p38 and NF-kappaB pathways. Osteoporos Int 2009 Jan; 20(1): 93-103.

Hoensch HP, Kirch W. Potential role of flavonoids in the prevention of intestinal neoplasia: a review of their mode of action and their clinical perspectives. Int J Gastrointest Cancer 2005; 35(3): 187-95.

Infante HG, et al. Current mass spectrometry strategies for selenium speciation in dietary sources of high-selenium. Anal Bioanal Chem 2005; 382(4): 957-67.

Yang J, et al. Varietal differences in phenolic content and antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of onions. J Agric Food Chem 2004 Nov 3; 52(22): 6787-93.

Bornet FR, et al. Nutritional aspects of short-chain fructooligosaccharides: natural occurrence, chemistry, physiology and health implications. Dig Liver Dis 2002; 34 Suppl 2: S111-20.

Jaber R. Respiratory and allergic diseases: from upper respiratory tract infections to asthma. Prim Care 2002 ; 29(2): 231-61.

Floruta CV. Dietary choices of people with ostomies. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs 2001; 28(1): 28-31.

Marlett JA, Marlett JA. Changes in content and composition of dietary fiber in yellow onions and red delicious apples during commercial storage. J AOAC Int 2000; 83(4): 992-6.

Di Renzo L, et al. Is antioxidant plasma status in humans a consequence of the antioxidant food content influence? Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2007; 11(3): 185-92.

Park J, et al Onion flesh and onion peel enhance antioxidant status in aged rats. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 2007; 53(1): 21-9.

About Onion HistoryRetrieved 2013-09-13

Abdel-Maksouda, et al. (2011). A review on the materials used during the mummification process in ancient Egypt. Mediterranean Archaeology and Archaeometry 11 (2): 129–150.

Eric Block, Garlic and Other Alliums: The Lore and the Science (Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry, 2010.

Gangopadhyay KS, et al. Pharmacological evaluation and chemical standardization of an Ayurvedic formulation for wound healing activity. Int J Low Extrem Wounds 2014; 13(1): 41-9.

Jenwitheesuk K, et al. Role of silicone derivative plus onion extract gel in presternal hypertrophic scar protection: a prospective randomized, double blinded, controlled trial. Int Wound J 2012; 9(4): 397-402.

Bakht J, et al. In vitro antimicrobial activity of Allium cepa (dry bulbs) against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and fungi. Pak J Pharm Sci 2014; 27(1): 139-45.

Colli JL, Amling CL. Chemoprevention of prostate cancer: what can be recommended to patients? Curr Urol Rep 2009; 10(3): 165-71.

Zhou XF, et al. Allium vegetables and risk of prostate cancer: evidence from 132,192 subjects. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2013; 14(7): 4131-4.

Sak K. Site-specific anticancer effects of dietary flavonoid quercetin. Nutr Cancer 2014; 66(2): 177-93.

Wang S, et al. Antioxidant capacity of food mixtures is not correlated with their antiproliferative activity against MCF-7 breast cancer cells. J Med Food 2013; 16(12): 1138-45.

Han MH, et al. Polyphenols isolated from Allium cepa L. induces apoptosis by suppressing IAP-1 through inhibiting PI3K/Akt signaling pathways in human leukemic cells. Food Chem Toxicol 2013; 62: 382-9.

Zeng YW, et al. Strategies of functional food for cancer prevention in human beings. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2013; 14(3): 1585-92.

Pham A, et al. Rapid dimerization of quercetin through an oxidative mechanism in the presence of serum albumin decreases its ability to induce cytotoxicity in MDA-MB-231 cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2012; 427(2): 415-20.

Antony ML, Singh SV. Molecular mechanisms and targets of cancer chemoprevention by garlic-derived bioactive compound diallyl trisulfide. Indian J Exp Biol 2011; 49(11): 805-16. Review.

Weidmann AE. Dihydroquercetin: More than just an impurity? Eur J Pharmacol 2012; 684(1-3): 19-26.

Wang Y, et al. Inhibitory effects of onion (Allium cepa L.) extract on proliferation of cancer cells and adipocytes via inhibiting fatty acid synthase. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2012; 13(11): 5573-9.

Yang J, et al. Varietal Differences in Phenolic Content and Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of Onions. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 2004; 52 (22): 6787–6793.

Slimestad R, et al. Onions: A source of unique dietary flavonoids. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 2007; 55 (25): 10067–80.

Williamson G, et al. Dietary quercetin glycosides: antioxidant activity and induction of the anticarcinogenic phase II marker enzyme quinone reductase in Hepalclc7 cells. Carcinogenesis 1997; 17 (11): 2385–2387.

Olsson ME, et al. Quercetin and isorhamnetin in sweet and red cultivars of onion (Allium cepa L.) at harvest, after field curing, heat treatment, and storage. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry 2010; 58 (4): 2323–2330.

Majewska-Wierzbicka M, Czeczot H. Flavonoids in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Pol Merkur Lekarski 2012; 32(187): 50-4.

Block E, et al. Onions and heartburn. Am J Gastroenterol 1992; 87(5): 679-80.

Benmalek Y, et al. Anti-microbial and anti-oxidant activities of Illicium verum, Crataegus oxyacantha ssp monogyna and

Allium cepa red and white varieties. Bioengineered 2013; 4(4): 244-8.

Arung ET, et al. Melanin biosynthesis inhibitory and antioxidant activities of quercetin-3'-O-beta-D-glucoside isolated from Allium cepa. Z Naturforsch C 2011; 66(5-6): 209-14.

Kumari K, Augusti KT. Antidiabetic and antioxidant effects of S-methyl cysteine sulfoxide isolated from onions (Allium cepa Linn) as compared to standard drugs in alloxan diabetic rats. Indian J Exp Biol 2002; 40(9): 1005-9.

Lean ME, et al. Dietary flavonols protect diabetic human lymphocytes against oxidative damage to DNA. Diabetes 1999 ; 48(1): 176-81.

Fritsch RM, Friesen N. Chapter 1: Evolution, Domestication, and Taxonomy. In H. D. Rabinowitch and L. Currah. Allium Crop Science: Recent Advances. Wallingford, UK: CABI ublishing 2002; p. 21.

Abdehvand LZ, Soleymani S. A Comparative Study of Allium hirtifolium in Traditional and Modern Medicine. Iran J Med Sci. 2016; 41(3 Suppl): S16.

Mikaili P, et al. Therapeutic uses and pharmacological properties of garlic, shallot, and their biologically active compounds. Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2013; 16(10): 1031-48.

Javad H, et al. Hepatoprotective effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Allium hirtifolium (Persian shallot) in diabetic rats. J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol 2012; 23(2): 83-7.

Kazemi S, et al. Liver-protective effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Allium hirtifolium boiss. In rats with alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus. ARYA Atheroscler. 2010; 6(1): 11-5.

Barile E, et al. Structure-activity relationships for saponins from Allium hirtifolium and Allium elburzense and their antispasmodic activity. Planta Med 2005; 71(11): 1010-8.

Zhou Y, et al. Consumption of large amounts of Allium vegetables reduces risk for gastric cancer in a meta-analysis. Gastroenterology 2011; 141(1): 80-9.

Krejčová P, et al. Antiinflammatory and neurological activity of pyrithione and related sulfur-containing pyridine N-oxides from Persian shallot (Allium stipitatum). J Ethnopharmacol 2014; 154(1): 176-82.

Lorigooini Z, et al. Evaluation of Anti-Platelet Aggregation Effect of Some Allium Species. Iran J Pharm Res. 2015; 14(4): 1225-31.

Mahboubi M, Kazempour N. The anti-dermatophyte activity of Allium hirtifolium Boiss aqueous extract. J Mycol Med 2015; 25(1): e10-4.

Pourzand A, et al. Associations between Dietary Allium Vegetables and Risk of Breast Cancer: A Hospital-Based Matched Case-Control Study. J Breast Cancer 2016 Sep; 19(3): 292-300.

Pal HC, et al. Fisetin and Its Role in Chronic Diseases. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2016; 928: 213-244.

LaFray, Joyce (1987). Tropic Cooking: The New Cuisine from Florida and the Islands of the Caribbean. Oakland: Ten Speed Press. p. 292.

Chive Tankin, by Winston J. Craig, Ph. D

Chives from "Sally's place", accessed on May 31, 2009

Allium ampeloprasum, World Check List of Selected Plant Families, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. retrieved 2013-02-01.

Librarie Larousse, ed. (1984). Larousse Gastronomique: The World's Greatest Cooking Encyclopedia. The Hamlyn Publishing Group Limited.

Mehdi M, et al. The effect of Persian shallot (Allium hirtifolium Boiss.) extract on blood sugar and serum levels of some hormones in diabetic rats. Pak J Pharm Sci 2013; 26(2): 397-402.




How to Cite

Kant Upadhyay, R. (2023). Nutritional and Therapeutic Potential of Allium Vegetables. Journal of Nutritional Therapeutics, 6(1), 18–37.