Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Ginger Spiced Yoghurt


  • Njoya Moyouwou Amadou Food Technology and Post- Harvest Laboratory, IRAD – Bambui, P.O. Box 51 or 80 Bamenda, Cameroon
  • Ejoh Abah Richard Department of Food Science and Technology, COLTECH – University of Bamenda, P.O. Box 39 Bambili, Cameroon
  • Nain Caroline Waingeh Food Technology and Post- Harvest Laboratory, IRAD – Bambui, P.O. Box 51 or 80 Bamenda, Cameroon
  • Imele Hélène Food Technology and Post- Harvest Laboratory, IRAD – Bambui, P.O. Box 51 or 80 Bamenda, Cameroon
  • Yakum Kelly Ndombow Department of Food Science and Technology, COLTECH – University of Bamenda, P.O. Box 39 Bambili, Cameroon
  • Kuiate Jules-Roger Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science – University of Dschang, P.O. Box 67 Dschang, Cameroon



Yoghurt, ginger powder, physicochemical properties, sensory properties, storage.


The physicochemical and sensory properties of ginger spiced yoghurt were investigated in the present study. Four yoghurt samples: A, B, C and D were prepared by addition of 0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5% (W/V) of ginger powder. Physicochemical properties of yoghurt samples determined at day 0 included pH, titratable acidity, dry matter, ash, fat and non-fat solid (NFS). The pH and titratable acidity were also evaluated during 30 days of storage at refrigerated conditions (4 – 6°C). The sensory attributes assessed were colour, odour, taste, texture and overall acceptability. From the results, ginger powder did not affect (P>0.05) the pH and titratable acidity of yoghurt but increased (P≤0.05) the dry matter, fat, NFS and ash content especially when spiced at 1% and 1.5% level. The spiced yoghurt did not show significant changes (P>0.05) in titratable acidityduring storage as opposed to the unspiced yoghurt that increased (P<0.05) with storage time. The pH values of spiced yoghurt were not significantly affected (P>0.05) by storage contrary to the unspiced yoghurt. At the end of storage, the unspiced yoghurt presented the lowest (P≤0.05) pH and the highest (P≤0.05) titratable acidity. Results of sensory evaluation revealed the low appreciation of the spiced yoghurt with an increase in the proportion of ginger powder. However, yoghurt with 0.5% ginger powder was appreciated equally (P>0.05) with the unspiced sample. Spicing yoghurt with ginger powder therefore has positive effect on its physicochemical properties and shelf –life. The yoghurt spiced with 0.5% ginger powder could therefore be recommended. 


[1] Russell DA, Ross RP, Fitzgerald GF, Stanton, C. Metabolic activities and probiotic potential of bifido bacteria. Inter-national Journal of Food Microbiology 2011; 149: 88-105.
[2] Tamine AY, Deeth HC. Yoghurt, technology and bio-chemistry. Journal of Food Protection 1980; 43(12): 937-77.
[3] Madhu AN, Amrutha N, Prapulla SG. Characterization and antioxidant property of probiotic and symbiotic yoghurts. Probiotic and Protein 2012; 14: 90-7.
[4] Buttris J. Nutritional properties of fermented milk products. International Journal of Dairy Technology 1997; 50: 21-7.
[5] Heymans M. Effect of lactid acid bacteria on diarrheal diseases. J Am Coll Nutr 2000; 19: 137-46.
[6] Tamine AY, Robinson RK. Yoghurt science and technology. Pergamon Press. Oxford. UK 1999.
[7] Yaygin H. Yoghurt technology. Akdeniz University. Publ. No 75. Antalya, Turkey 1999.
[8] Saint-Eve A, Levy C, Martin N, Souchon I. Influence of proteins on the perception of flavored stirred yogurts. J Dairy Sci 2006; 89: 922-33.
[9] Latona DF, Oyeleke GO, Olayiwola OA. Chemical analysis of ginger root. IOSR Journal of Applied Chemistry (IOSRJAC) 2012; 1(1): 47-9.
[10] Olubunmi BA, Seun FA, Funmilayo TA. Food value of two varieties of ginger (zingiber officinale) commonly consumed in Nigeria. Hindawi Publishing Corporation, ISRN Nutrtition 2013; p. 5.
[11] ICMR. Ginger: its role in xenobiotic metabolism. ICMR Bulletin. June 2003; 33(6): 57-63.
[12] Gugnani HC, Ezenwanze EC. Antibacterial activity of extracts of ginger (Zingiber officinale) and African oil bean seed (Pentaclethora macrophylla). J Commun Dis 1985; 17: 233.
[13] Akoachere JF, Ndip RN, Chenwi EB. Antibacterial effect of Zingiber officinale and Garcinia kola on respiratory tract pathogens. East Afr Med J 2002; 79(11): 588-92.
[14] Atai Z, Atapour M, Mohseni M. Inhibitory effect of ginger extract on Candida albicans. American Journal of Applied Sciences 2009; 6(6): 1067-1069.
[15] Ahmed R, Sharma S. Biochemical studies on combined effect of garlic (Allium sativum Linn) and ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc) in albino rats. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 1997; 35: 841-3.
[16] Bhandari U, Kanojia R, Pillai KK. Effect of ethanolic extract of Zingiber officinale on dyslipidaemia in diabetic rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2005; 97(2): 227-30.
[17] Al-Amin ZM, Thomson M, Al-Qattan KK, Peltonen-Shalaby R, Ali M. Anti-diabetic and hypolipidaemic properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. British Journal of Nutrition 2006; 96(4): 660-6.
[18] Mendi SD. Developpement of bambirad (a ginger-spiced) cheese as a functional food. PhD thesis. ENSAI-The University of Ngaoundere, Cameroon 2011.
[19] Aruoma OI, Spencer JP, Warren D, Jenner P, Butler J, Halliwell B. Characterization of food antioxydants illustration using commercial garlic and ginger preparation. Food Chemistry 1997; 60: 149-56.
[20] Thomson M, Al Qattan KK, Al Sawan SM. The use of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) as a potential antiflammatory and antithrombotic agent. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2002; 67(6): 475-8.
[21] Guyer D. Advanced medical centre Zionsville, Indiana, Indianapolis, USA 2003. htlm (website accessed on 26 june 2009). Available from http://www; glosary/ginger
[22] Adesokan IA, Abiola OP, Ogundiya MO. Influence of ginger on sensory properties and shelf-life of Ogi, a Nigerian traditional fermented food. African Journal of Biotechnology 2010; 9: 1803-8.
[23] Lee WJ, Lucey JA. Formation and physical properties of yoghurt. Asian-Aust J Anim Sci 2010; 23(9): 1127-30.
[24] AOAC. Official methods of analysis. 15th ed Washington DC. Edr. Washington DC 1990.
[25] Njoya MA, Mahbou PY, Nain CW, Imele H. Physicochemical, microbiological and sensory properties of pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) flavoured yoghurt. IJAIR 2016; 4(6): 1154-8.
[26] Rashid A, Thakur ESN. Studies on quality parameters of set yoghurt prepared by the addition of honey. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications 2012; (9): 1-9.
[27] Manjula K, Viswanath C, Suneetha C. Physico-chemical, sensory and microbial quality of yoghurt fortified with sapota pulp. International Journal of Material Sciences and Chemistry 2012; 1(1): 4-6.
[28] Yousef M, Nateghi L, Azadi E. Effect of different concentration of fruit additives on some physicochemical properties of yoghurt during storage. Ann Biol Res 2013; 4(4): 244-9.
[29] FDA Milk and cream products and yogurts products. Food and Drugs Administration. Federal Register 2009; 74.
[30] Güler Z, Park YW. Characteristics of physico-chemical properties, volatile compounds and free fatty acid profiles of commercial set-type Turkish yoghurts. Journal of Animal Sciences 2011; 1(1): 1-9.
[31] Ponka R, Beaucher E, Fokou E, Kansci G, Piot M, Lleonil J, Gaucheron F. Composition of raw cow milk and artisanal yoghurt collected in Maroua (Cameroon). Afr J Biotech 2013; 12(49): 6866-75.
[32] Joseph AOO, Joy EO. Physico-chemical and sensory evaluation of market yoghurt in Nigeria. Pak J Nutr 2011; 10(10): 914-8.
[33] Isam AMAO, Eshraga AE, Abu Elgasim AY, Efadil EB. Physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics of yoghurt produced from camel milk during storage. Electronic Journal of Environmental, Agricultural and Food Chemistry (EJEAChe) 2011; 10(6): 2305-13.
[34] Ayar A, Gürlin E. Production and sensory, textural, physicochemical properties of flavored spreadable yogurt. Life Science Journal 2014; 11(4): 8.
[35] USDA Specifications for yogurt. Non fat yogurt and low fat yogurt. Document 21 CFR, part 131. 2001; 200-3.
[36] Tarakçi Z, Küçüköner E. Physical, chemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics of some fruit-flavored yoghurt. YYÜ Vet Fak Derg 2003; 14(2): 10-4.
[37] Elfaki EA, Abd Elrazig EB. Quality assurance of different types of yoghurt in Khartoum state markets. Gezira J of Eng & Applied Sci 2010; 5(2): 1-16.
[38] De Silva KLSR, Rathnayaka MUSK. Physico-chemical sensory and microbiological evaluation of set and fruit yoghurt in Sabaragamuwa Province, Sri Lanka. Journal of Scientific Research & Reports 2014; 3(2): 284-93.
[39] Belewu MA, Belewu KY, Bamidele RA. Cyper-coconut yoghurt: preparation, compositional and organoleptic qualities. African Journal of Food Science and Technology 2010; 1(1): 10-2.
[40] Duangrutai T. Effect of Thai fruits on sensory properties of fruit yogurt and survival of yogurt starter culture added with probiotic strains in fruit yogurt. Res J Pharm Biol Chem Sci 2014; 5(3): 283-90.