The Toxic Effects of Low Molecular Weight Components of Cow Colostrums: The Short-Term and Long-Term Effects
Keywords:Toxicity, Colostrum, Diarrhea.
Abstract: Background: Low-molecular components of colostrum (LMWCC) have a pronounced biological activity. We investigated the effect of different doses of LMWCC (0.01, 0.1, 1 and 5 g/100 g of body weight) on the behavior, dynamics of growth, acute and chronic toxicity, as well as the relative weight of the liver, spleen and kidneys of the experimental animals.
Methods: We used 100 3-month male rats in the experiment. All animals were divided into 5 groups of 20 animals in each group, LMWCC was administered per os, and the control group received sterile water.
Results: LMWCC revealed no pirogenic effect in a wide diapason of doses (0,01-5 g/100 g of animal mass). Immediately after the LMWCC administration the short-time decrease in the motion activity was observed. The low doses of LMWCC induced diarrhea in 10-20 % of of animals, the super-large dose – in 75% of animals. The acute toxicity of LMWCC (death of 15 % of animals) was detected only in super-large dose of LMWCC and it was accompanied by pronounced diarrhea. LMWCC influenced the mass of liver, spleen and kidney. 60 days after LMWCC administration the mass of liver was restored to control weight, but the mass of spleen and kidney was not restored.
Conclusion: LMWCCdo not have chronic toxicity and can be attributed to non-toxic compounds with a possible side effect - a violation of the digestive system.
 Besser TE, Gay CC. The Importance Of Colostrum To The Health Of The Neonatal Calf. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice 1994; 10(1): 107-117.
 Bozhkov AI, Nikitchenko YuV, Al-Bahadly AMM. Overeating in early postnatal ontogenesis forms metabolic memory and reduces lifespan. Biomedical Journal of Gerontology and Geriatric Research 2016; 5(3): 1000309.
 Stelwagen K, Carpenter E, Haugh B, Hodgkinson A, Wheeler TT. Immune components of bovine colostrum and milk. J Anim Sci 2009; 87: 3-9.
 Brandtzaeg P. The mucosal immune system and its integration with the mammary glands. J Pediatr 2010; 156: S8-S15.
 Tizard I. The protective properties of milk and colostrum in non-human species. In Advances in Nutritional Research: Immunological Properties of Milk; Woodward B, Draper HH, Eds.; Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers: New York, NY, USA 2001; Volume 10, pp. 139-166.
 Elizondo-Salazar JA, Heinrichs AJ. Feeding heat-treated colostrum to neonatal dairy heifers: Effects on growth characteristics and blood parameters. J Dairy Sci 2009; 92: 3265-3273.
 Williams DR, Pithua P, Garcia A, Champagne J, Haines DM, Aly SS. Effect Three Colostrum Diets on Passive Transfer of Immunity and Preweaning Health in Calves on a California Dairy following Colostrum Management Training. Veterinary Medicine International 2014; 1-9.
 Xu ML, Kim HJ, Chang DY, Kim H-J. The effect of dietary intake of the acidic protein fraction of bovine colostrum on influenza A (H1N1) virus infection. Journal of Microbiology 2013; 51(3): 389-393.
 Pat?ro?lu T, Kondolot M. The effect of bovine colostrum on viral upper respiratory tract infections in children with immunoglobulin A deficiency.The Clinical Respiratory Journal 2013; 7(1): 21-26.
 Parreño V, Marcoppido G, Vega C, Garaicoechea L, Rodriguez D, Saif L, Ferñandez F. Milk supplemented with immune colostrum: Protection against rotavirus diarrhea and modulatory effect on the systemic and mucosal antibody responses in calves experimentally challenged with bovine rotavirus. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2010; 136: 12-27.
 Gao W, Chen L, Xu LB, Huang XH. Specific activity against diarrheagenic bacteria in bovine immune milk and effect of pH on its antigen-binding activity upon heating. J Dairy Res 2010; 77: 220-224.
 Viza D, Fudenberg HH, Palareti A, Ablashi D, De Vinci C, et al. Transfer Factor: an Overlooked Potential for the Prevention and Treatment of Infectious Diseases. Folia Biologica; Praha 59.2 2013; 53-67.
 Struff WG, Sprotte G. Bovine colostrum as a biologic in clinical medicine; a review—Part II: Clinical studies. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 2008; 46: 211-225.
 Bozhkov AI, Nikitchenko YuV, Lebid KM, Ivanov EG, Kurguzova NI, Gayevoy SS, Sharko MO, Alsardia MMA, Al Begai MAY. Low Molecular Weight Components from Various Sources Eliminate Oxidative Stress and Restore Physiological Characteristic of Animals at Early Stages of Cu-Induced Liver Fibrosis Development. Translational Biomedicine 2017; 8(2): 107.
 Bozhkov AI, Linkevych OS, Ivanov EG, Klimova OM, AlBegai MAY. Low molecular weight components of colostrum regulate the activity of cellular component of the immune system in animals with Cu-induced liver fibrosis. International Journal of Current Research 2016; 8(12): 44129-44137.
 Kurguzova NI, Bozhkov AI, Nikitchenko YuV, AlBegai MAY, Goltvyansky AV, Alsardia MMA, Bozhkov AA. Interconnection of Antitoxic and Antioxidant Systems of the Organism under the Action of Natural Low Molecular Complex – Fungidol. American Journal of Biomedical and Life Sciences. Special Issue: Mechanisms of Protection against Oxidative Stress 2015; 2(6-1): 25-32.
 Bozhkov AI, Ivanov EG, Al Begai MAY, Alsardia MMA, Kurguzova NI. Low-Molecular Weight Cow Colostrum Components in Functional Nutrition Journal of Nutritional Therapeutics 2017; 6: 11-17.
 Shapovalov S, Rosso L, Bozhkov A. Changes in the composition of mammary gland secretions in the first ten days of lactation. BiologicheskiyVestnik (in Russian) 2010; 1: 22-29.
 Senda A, Fukuda K, Ishii T, Urashima T. Changes in the bovine whey proteome during the early lactation period. Anim Sci J 2011; 82(5): 698-706.
 Hernández-Castellano LE, Argüello A, Almeida AM, Castro N, Bendixen E. Colostrum protein uptake in neonatal lambs examined by descriptive and quantitative liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. J Dairy Sci 2015; 98(1): 135-147.
 Sánchez-González DJ, Sosa-Luna CA, Vásquez-Moctezuma I. Transfer factors in medical therapy. Med Clin (Barc) 2011; 137(6): 273-277.
 Gotzsche PC, Johansen HK. Meta-analysis of short term low dose prednisolone versus placebo and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in rheumatoid arthritis. BMJ 1998; 316: 811-818.
 National Toxicology Program’s report of the endocrine disruptors low dose peer review. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, NIH National Toxicology Program 2001.
 Rollin BE. The Regulation of Animal Research and the Emergence of Animal Ethics: A Conceptual History. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 2006; 27(4): 285-304.
 Ma MCJ, Pettus JM, Jakoubek JA, et al. Contribution of independent and pleiotropic genetic effects in the metabolic syndrome in a hypertensive rat. Thameem F, ed. PLoS ONE 2017; 12(8): e0182650.
 Choi D-H, Hur Y-I, Kang J-H, et al. Usefulness of the Waist Circumference-to-Height Ratio in Screening for Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome among Korean Children and Adolescents: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2010–2014. Nutrients 2017; 9(3): 256.
 Tiniakos DG, Anstee QM, Burt AD. Macsween's Pathology of the Liver 2017; 308.
 Buha A, Milovanovi? V, Antonijevi? B, Bulat Z, Matovi? V. Relative Liver Weight in Rats Subacutely Exposed to Polychlorinated Biphenyls. Environmental Security Assessment and Management of Obsolete Pesticides in Southeast Europe 19 March 2013; pp. 287-294.
 Marchesini G, Petta S, Dalle GR. Diet, weight loss, and liver health in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: Pathophysiology, evidence, and practice. Hepatology 2016; 63: 2032-2043.
 Pancheva-Dimitrova RZ, Georgieva-Shakola M, Tzaneva V. Probiotics and antibioticassociated diarrhea in children. Abstracts of 12 UEGW, Gut 2004; 53(Suppl VI): A137.
 Krause R, Krejs G, Wenisch C, Reisinger EC. Elevated fecal Candida counts in patients with antibiotic-associated diarrhea: role of soluble fecal substances. Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology 2003; 10(1): 67-168.
 Heine RG. Allergic gastrointestinal motility disorders in infancy and early childhood. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2008; 19: 383-391.
Policy for Journals/Articles with Open Access
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under aÂ Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post links to their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work
Policy for Journals / Manuscript with Paid Access
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Publisher retain copyright .
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post links to their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work .