Crewing of Sea Vessels Taking into Account Project Risks and Technical Condition of Ship Equipment


  • Oleg V. Zakharchenko Department of Management and Marketing, Odessa State Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Ode
  • Dmytro I. Bedrii State Enterprise “Ukrainian Scientific Research Institute of Radio and Television”, Odessa
  • Olena V. Bileha Department of Management and Marketing, Odessa State Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Ode
  • Oksana Y. Savina Department of Technological and Civil Security, Admiral Makarov National University of Shipbuilding, Mykolayiv
  • Oksana V. Haidaienko Information Management System and Technologies Department, Admiral Makarov National University of Shipbuilding, Mykolayiv



Optimization model, ship’s manning, crew size, shipping risks, project effectiveness evaluation, project team, ship’s stuffing, maritime industry.


Motivation: One of the main concepts in project management is the concept of “team†in the project, and in project management - the human resources management of the project, which includes the processes of planning, forming and creating a team, its development and support activities, transformation or disbandment of the team. Despite the great attention paid to the formation of project management teams, existing studies do not fully highlight the specifics and features of crew operations. Criteria for the quantitative optimization of the ship's crew should be consistent with the main objectives of the project.

Novelty: The research paper proposes an approach that allows optimizing the quantitative composition of the crew of a ship by more accurately assessing the level of project risks and costs associated with the maintenance of ship equipment. The practical application of this approach will optimize the quantitative composition of the ship's crew, which will both satisfy the needs of managing the technical equipment and minimize the risks and costs of the shipowner.

Methodology and Methods: Risk management tools were used to achieve the objective and test the hypotheses suggested in the research, namely: methodology for estimating the net present value of the project; the method of estimating internal rate of return for the project; the method of estimating the return on investment in the project; the method of estimation for the period of return on investment costs in the project; the method of estimating the discounted payback period for the project, as well as the tools of simulation modelling (Monte Carlo simulation method). The method of identification and grouping in the process of classification of project risks in the sphere of marine transportation, methods of systematization, grouping and logical generalization were also applied for systematization of information, drawing conclusions and making scientific suggestions in the research.

Policy Considerations: Shipping plays an important role in the trade and tourism industry; human factor is the most important aspect that determines the efficiency of shipping development; maintaining of technical and technological processes of the ship puts certain requirements to the quantitative and qualitative composition of the team, deviation from which leads to the occurrence of certain risk events; formation of an effective model of ship's crew manning is the main link in ensuring effective shipping project management.


Alapetite, Alexandre and Igor Kozine. 2017. “Safe manning of merchant ships: an approach and computer tool.” Maritime Policy & Management: The flagship journal of international shipping and port research 44(3): 323-335.
Alexandrovskaya, N. I., V. I. Shakhov, and A. V. Shakhov. 2011. “A risk-based strategy for ship maintenance and repair.” Bulletin of Methods and Facilities Managing the Development of Transport Systems 17: 13-23.
Alluisi, E. A., T. J. Hall, and W. D. Chiles. 1962. Group performance during four- hour periods of confiment (MRL-TDR-62-70). Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio: Aerospase Medical Research Lab.
Altman, Irwin, and Anita Terauds. 1960. Major variables of the small group field. Arlington, Va.: Human Sciences Research, Inc.
Barnett, Michael L., and Claire H. Pekcan. 2017. The Human Element in Shipping. Retrieved November 17, 2019.
Baykasoglu, Adil, Turkay Dereli and Sena Das. 2007. “Project team selection using fuzzy optimization approach.” Cybernetics and Systems 38(2): 155-185.
Boyko, Victor, Nicolay Rudnichenko, Sergey Kramskoy, Yevhen Hrechukha, and Natalia Shibaeva. 2017. “Concept Implementation of Decision Support Software for the Risk Management of Complex Technical System.” Pp. 255-269 in Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, edited by N. Shakhovska. Cham: Springer.
Chapanis, Alphonse. 1961. “Men, maschines and models.” American Psychologist 16: 113-131.
Cremeans, J. E. (1968). “Trend in Simulation.” Computers and Automation 17(1): 44-48.
Ernst, A.T., H. Jiang, M. Krishnamoorthy, H. Nott, and D. Sier. 2001. “An Integrated Optimization Model for Train Crew Management.” Annals of Operations Research 108(1-4): 211-224.
Ilina, Elena L., Konstantin A. Miloradov, and Andrey P. Kovaltchuk. 2019. “‘Green Hotel’: Concepts and Implementation.” Journal of Environmental Management and Tourism 10(2): 300-306.
International Maritime Organization. n./d. International convention of standards of training, certification and watchkeeping for seafarers (STCW). Retrieved November 17, 2019 (,-Certification-and-Watchkeeping-for-Seafarers-(STCW).aspx)
Kramskyi, Sergiy O. 2014. “Models and methods of forming project teams on the example of the crew of a ship.” PhD dissertation. Odessa National Maritime University, Odessa.
Kramskyi, Sergiy O. 2017a. “Risk-oriented approach management system of transport safety.” Bulletin of the Volodymyr Dahl East Ukrainian National University 233(3): 90-94.
Kramskyi, Sergiy O. 2017b. “Risk-oriented instrumentation under conditions of uncertainty of management of a specified inhomogeneous project.” Pp. 92-95. Theses of International scientific conference: Globalization of scientific and educational space. Innovations of transport. Problems, experience, prospects. Severodonetsk: EUNU. Dal.
Livingstone, Divine Caesar, Stephen Cahoon, and Jiangang Fei. 2014. “Exploring the range of retention issues for seafarers in global shipping: opportunities for further research.” WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs 14(1): 141-157.
Mazur, I. I., V. D. Shapiro, and N. G. Olderogge. 2001a. Project Management: a handbook for professionals. Moscow: Higher School.
Mazur, I. I., V. D. Shapiro, and N. G. Olderogge. 2001b. Project Management: a textbook for high schools. Moscow: LLC Publ. ""Economics"".
O’Neil, W. A. 2000. Why risk management in shipping? Retrieved November 16, 2019 ( 86046584/Why-Risk-Management-in-Shipping)
Sawik, Tadeush. 2015. “On the fair optimization of cost and customer service level in a supply chain under disruption risks.” Omega: The International Journal of Management Science 53: 58-66.
Shakhov, A. V. and S. A. Kramskoy. 2011. “Formation of the crew on the basis of simulation.” Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies 1/5(49): 69-70.
Turner, John Rodney. 1993. The Handbook of Project-based Management: Improving the Processes for Achieving Strategic Objectives. London: McGraw-Hill Book Company Europe.
United Nations. 2019. Review of maritime transport. Retrieved November 17, 2019 ( Library/rmt2019_en.pdf)
Wang, Kai, Shuaian Wang, Lu Zhen and Xiaobo Qu. 2016. “Cruise shipping review: operations planning and research opportunities.” Maritime business review 1(2): 133-148.
Zakharchenko, O. V. and M. Yu. Zakharchenko. 2019. “Forming the team of the implementation project on the basis of the simulation model.” Materials of the International scientific and practical conference dedicated to the memory of professors Yu. Ya. Fomin and V. S. Semenov, April 18-22, Odessa, Ukraine; Istanbul, Turkey.
Zhanga, Guizhen and Vinh V. Thaiab. 2016. “Expert elicitation and Bayesian Network modeling for shipping accidents: A literature review.” Safety Science 87: 53-62.
Zhanga, Yao and Zhi-Ping Fanb. 2014. “An optimization method for selecting project risk response strategies.” International Journal of Project Management 32(3): 412-422.
Zhao, Qian and Lian-Ying Zhang. 2018. “Research on the Effect of DPSO in Team Selection Optimization under the Background of Big Data.” Complexity 2018: Article ID 1386407.