The photo-protective activity of Crataegus monogyna extract proved by complementary mechanisms of skin inflammation, damage of extracellular matrix, cellular survival and proliferation disorders
Keywords:Crataegus monogyna, UV-radiation, apoptosis, cell cycle, inflammatory cytokines, superoxide anion, catalase, metaloproteinases
The skin photo-ageing and photo-carcinogenesis are based on cellular mechanisms triggered by UV-radiation, starting with oxidative stress and inflammation, activation of matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP) that increase the structural protein degradation, ending with DNA damage and apoptosis induction. In order to claim the photo-protective activity of an ingredient it's important to explore the main pathways involved in this complex process, highlighting its target action.
Our studies are based on a cellular screening of UV-A and UV-B irradiated keratinocytes (HaCat cell line), focusing on the apoptosis induction, cell cycle sequentiation, metalloproteinase's expression, pro-inflammatory cytokines release and IL1alpha as sensitization molecule, as well as the antioxidant capacity of the extract, and acting on catalase and superoxide-dismutase activity. The investigation techniques are flow cytometry (cellular parameters fluorescent staining and beads-based assay for soluble protein detection), zymography and enzymatic activity tests.
The Crataegus monogyna extract, with a rich content of pro-antocians, flavones and polyphenolcarboxylic acids, show a UV-A cellular protection and dose dependent inhibition of inflammatory cytokines and MMP2 and 9 after both UV-A and UV-B irradiation. All these effects are sustained by a cumulative antioxidant capacity at enzymatic and intracellular oxygen radical level.
These findings recommend the phyto-complex for the prevention or therapy of UV-photo damages.
 Bryce J, Boschi-Pinto C, Shibuya K, Black RE. WHO Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group. WHO estimates of the causes of death in children. Lancet 2005; 365: 1147-52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(05)71877-8
 Lopez AD, Mathers CD, Ezzati M, Jamison DT, Murray CJL. Global and regional burden of disease and risk factors: systematic analysis of population health data. Lancet 2006; 367: 1747-57. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(06)68770-9
 Black RE, Allen LH, Bhutta ZA, et al. Maternal and child undernutrition: global and regional exposures and health consequences. Lancet 2008; 371: 243-60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(07)61690-0
 Pang IK, Iwasaki A. Control of antiviral immunity by pattern recognition and the microbiome. Immunol Rev 2012; 245: 209-26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-065X.2011.01073.x
 Villena J, Oliveira ML, Ferreira P, Salva S, Alvarez S. Lactic acid bacteria in the prevention of pneumococcal respiratory infection: future opportunities and challenges. Int Immunopharmacol 2011; 11: 1633-45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2011.06.004
 Villena J, Racedo S, Agüero G, et al. Lactobacillus caseiimproves resistance to pneumococcal respiratory infection in malnourished mice. J Nutr 2005; 135: 1462-9.
 Racedo S, Villena J, Medina M, et al. Lactobacillus casei administration reduces lung injuries in a Streptococcus pneumoniae infection in mice. Microbes Infect 2006; 8: 2359-66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micinf.2006.04.022
 Alvarez S, Herrero C, Bru E, Perdigon G. Effect of Lactobacillus casei and yogurt administration on prevention of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in young mice. J Food Prot 2001; 64: 1768-74.
 Hori T, Kiyoshima J, Shida K, Yasui H. Augmentation of cellular immunity and reduction of influenza virus titer in aged mice fed Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2002; 9: 105-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/CDLI.9.1.105-108.2002
 Morrow LE, Kollef MH, Casale TB. Probiotic prophylaxis of ventilator-associated pneumonia: a blinded, randomized, controlled trial. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2010; 182: 1058-64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/rccm.200912-1853OC
 Hatakka K, Savilahti E, Pönkä A, et al. Effect of long term consumption of probiotic milk on infections in children attending day care centres: double blind, randomised trial. BMJ 2001; 322: 1327. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.322.7298.1327
 Hojsak I, Abdovi S, Szajewska H, et al. Lactobacillus GG in the prevention of nosocomial gastrointestinal and respiratory tract infections. Pediatrics 2010; 125: e1171-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2009-2568
 Hojsak I, Snovak N, Abdovi S, et al. Lactobacillus GG in the prevention of gastrointestinal and respiratory tract infections in children who attend day care centers: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Clin Nutr 2010; 29: 312-6. http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1038/ejcn.2012.62
 de Vrese M, Winkler P, Rautenberg P, et al. Probiotic bacteria reduced duration and severity but not the incidence of common cold episodes in a double blind, randomized, controlled trial. Vaccine 2006; 24: 6670-4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2006.05.048
 Salva S, Villena J, Alvarez S. Diferential immunomodulatory activity of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains isolated from goat milk: impact on intestinal and respiratory infections. Int J Food Microbiol 2010; 141: 82-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2010.03.013
 Salva S, Nuñez M, Villena J, et al. Development of a fermented goats' milk containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus: in vivo study of health benefits. J Sci Food Agric 2011; 91: 2355-62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.4467
 Salva S, Merino MC, Agüero G, Gruppi A, Alvarez S. Dietary supplementation with probiotics improves hematopoiesis in malnourished mice. PLoS One 2012; 7: e31171. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0031171
 Bardach A, Ciapponi A, Garcia-Marti S, et al. Epidemiology of acute otitis media in children of Latin America and the Caribbean: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2011; 75: 1062-70. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijporl.2011.05.014
 Rocco R. Periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and adenitis: PFAPA syndrome in Argentina. An Pediatr 2011; 74: 161-7. http://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/articulo?codigo=3619768
 Wolf DG, Greenberg D, Kalkstein D, et al. Comparison of human metapneumovirus, respiratory syncytial virus and influenza A virus lower respiratory tract infections in hospitalized young children. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2006; 25: 320-4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.inf.0000207395.80657.cf
 Gentile A, Bardach A, Ciapponi A, et al. Epidemiology of community-acquired pneumonia in children of Latin America and the Caribbean: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Infect Dis 2012; 16: e5-15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2011.09.013
 Edmond K, Scott S, Korczak V, et al. Long term sequelae from childhood pneumonia; systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One 2012; 7: e31239. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0031239
 Stupka JA, Carvalho P, Amarilla AA, et al. National Rotavirus Surveillance in Argentina: high incidence of G9P
 strains and detection of G4P
 strains with porcine characteristics. Infect Genet Evol 2009; 9: 1225-31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2009.07.002
 Empinotti JC, Uyeda H, Ruaro RT, Galhardo AP, Bonatto DC. Pyodermitis. An Bras Dermatol 2012; 87: 277-84. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0365-05962012000200013
 Sazawal S, Dhingra U, Hiremath G, et al. Prebiotic and probiotic fortified milk in prevention of morbidities among children: community-based, randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. PLoS ONE 2010; 5: e12164. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012164
 Shornikova AV, Casas IA, Mykkanen H, Salo E, Vesikari T. Bacterotherapy with Lactobacillus reuteri in rotavirus gastroenteritis. Pediatr Infect Dis 1997; 16: 1103-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00006454-199712000-00002
 Rosenfeldt V, Michaelsen KF, Jakobsen M, et al. Effect of probiotic Lactobacillus strains on acute diarrhea in a cohort of nonhospitalized children attending day-care centers. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2002; 21: 417-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00006454-200205000-00013
 Salari P, Nikfar S, Abdollahi M. A meta-analysis and systematic review on the effect of probiotics in acute diarrhea. Inflamm Allergy Drug Targets 2012; 11:3-14.
 de Vrese M, Winkler P, Rautenberg P, et al. Effect of Lactobacillus gasseri PA 16/8, Bifidobacterium longum SP 07/3, B. bifidum MF 20/5 on common cold episodes: a double blind, randomized, controlled trial. Clin Nutr 2005; 24: 481-91. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2005.02.006
 Kukkonen K, Savilahti E, Haahtela T, et al. Long-term safety and impact on infection rates of postnatal probiotic and prebiotic (synbiotic) treatment: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Pediatrics 2008; 122: 8-12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2007-1192
 Weizman Z, Asli G, Alsheikh A. Effect of a probiotic infant formula on infections in child care centers: comparison of two probiotic agents. Pediatrics 2005; 115: 5-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2004-1815
 Villena J, Salva S, Núñez M, et al. Beneficial lactobacilli for improving respiratory defenses: the case of Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL1505. 2012. In: Lactobacillus: classification, uses and health implications. NOVA Science publishers, In press.
 Villena J, Medina M, Vintiñi E, Alvarez S. Stimulation of respiratory immunity by oral administration of Lactococcus lactis. Can J Microbiol 2008; 54: 630-8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/W08-077
 Twigg HL. Humoral immune defense (antibodies): recent advances. Proc Am Thorac Soc 2005; 2: 417-21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1513/pats.200508-089JS
 Kerr AR, Irvine JJ, Search JJ, et al. Role of inflammatory mediators in resistance and susceptibility to pneumococcal infection. Infect Immun 2002; 70: 1547-57. http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/IAI.70.3.1547-1557.2002
Policy for Journals/Articles with Open Access
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post links to their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work
Policy for Journals / Manuscript with Paid Access
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Publisher retain copyright .
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post links to their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work .