Factors Influencing NGO Activities: Lithuanian Case Study


  • Andrius Stasiukynas Institute of Public Administration, Faculty of Public Governance and Business, Mykolas Romeris University, Vilnius, Lithuania https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2937-241X
  • Aušra Šukvietienė Institute of Public Administration, Faculty of Public Governance and Business, Mykolas Romeris University, Vilnius, Lithuania
  • Tadas Sudnickas Institute of Strategic Management and Leadership, Faculty of Public Governance and Business, Mykolas Romeris University, Vilnius, Lithuania




Non-governmental organizations, internal factors, external factors, incentives, constraints, legal environment


The article aims to explore the external and internal factors influencing the activities of NGOs, in Lithuania. A qualitative empirical study was conducted (10 expert surveys) on this issue, what are the factors that help and hinder the activities of NGOs in Lithuania. The study allowed us to identify groups of factors positively influencing the activities of NGOs: human skills; infrastructure, as well as the organisation's relationship with public authorities, the hindering factors were also identified: the application of contracting authority status to NGOs; "activities in the public interest" interpretation; peculiarities of taxation of non-profit organizations; etc. The most relevant groups of NGO activity problems and related legal acts were distinguished: application of the contracting authority status to NGOs (Law on Public Procurement of the Republic of Lithuania); Interpretation of “activities in the public interest” (STI material. Peculiarities of taxation of non-profit organizations; etc. legislation); application of corporate income tax to non-profit organizations (Law on Corporate Income Tax of the Republic of Lithuania).


Banks, Nicola, Hulme, David. 2012. The Role of NGOs and Civil Society in Development and Poverty Reduction. BWPI Working Paper. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2072157 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2072157

Brandsen Taco, Steen Trui. 2020. Coproduction during and after the COVID-19 Pandemic: Will It Last? Public Administration Review, Vol. 80, Iss. 5, p. 851–855. https://doi.org/10.1111/puar.13258 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/puar.13258

Brandsen, Taco, Pape, Ulla. 2015. The Netherlands: The Paradox of Government–Nonprofit Partnerships. VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations. Vol. 26(6), p. 2267-2282. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11266-015-9646-3 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11266-015-9646-3

Butkevičienė, Egle, Vaidelytė, Egle, Šnapštienė, Rasa. 2010. Role of Civil Society Organizations in Local Governance: Theoretical Approaches and Empirical Challenges in Lithuania. Public Policy and Administration, No. 33, p. 35-44.

Casais Beatriz, Santos Sara. 2019. Corporate Propensity for Long-Term Donations to Non-Profit Organisations: An Exploratory Study in Portugal. Social Sciences. Vol. 8(1):2. https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8010002 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8010002

Civil Society Institute, Civic Empowerment Index, 2020. Available online: http://www.civitas.lt/en/time-line/civic-empowerment-index-2019/

Civil Society Organization Sustainability Index on Lithuania: 2019. Available online: https://lt.usembassy.gov/latest-csos-index-on-lithuania-2019/

Crosby, Barbara C., Hart Paul 't Hart, Torfing, Jacob. 2017. Public value creation through collaborative innovation, Public Management Review. 19:5, 655-669. https://doi.org/10.1080/14719037.2016.1192165 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/14719037.2016.1192165

Dahlgren, Lars-Ove, Fallsberg. Margareta. 1991. Phenomenography as a qualitative approach in social pharmacy research. Journal of Social and Administrative Pharmacy. Vol. 8 (4), p. 150–156.

Epperly, Brad., Lee, Taedong. 2015. Corruption and NGO Sustainability: A Panel Study of Post-communist States, VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations. Vol. 26, p. 171-197. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11266-013-9404-3 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11266-013-9404-3

Freeman, R. Edward, Phillips, Robert A. 2020. Stakeholder Theory: a Libertarian Defence. Business Ethics Quarterly. 12(3), p. 331-349. https://doi.org/10.2307/3858020 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/3858020

Gaižauskaitė, Inga, Valavičienė, Natalija. 2016. Socialinių tyrimų metodai: Kokybinis interviu. Vilnius: Mykolo Romerio universitetas.

Greve, Carsten. 2013. Ideas in Public Management Reform for the 2010s. Digitalization, Value Creation and Involvement. Public Organization Review. 15, p. 49-65. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11115-013-0253-8 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11115-013-0253-8

Grigaliūnaitė, Jolanta., Mačiukaitė – Žvinienė, Saule. 2006. Looking for Civil Participation in the Baltic States: Non – Governmental Sector. Viešoji politika ir administravimas. No.17, p.115-122

Laurisz Norbert. 2019. The Role of Stakeholders in Development of Social Economy Organizations in Poland: An Integrative Approach. Administrative Sciences. Vol. 9(4):74. https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci9040074 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci9040074

Lietuvos statistikos departamentas. Ūkio subjektai. Lietuvos statistikos metraštis. 2014, p. 469-480. Available online: http://osp.stat.gov.lt/services-portlet/pub-edition-file?id=2910

Meynhardt Timo. et al. 2017. Public Value Performance: What Does It Mean to Create Value in the Public Sector? In: Andeßner R., Greiling D., Vogel R. (eds) Public Sector Management in a Globalized World. NPO-Management. Springer Gabler, Wiesbaden. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-16112-5_8 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-16112-5_8

Öberg PerOla, Uba Katrin. 2014. Civil Society Making Political Claims: Outcries, Interest Advocacy, and Deliberative Claims. Public Administration Review. Vol. 74(3), p. 413–422. https://doi.org/10.1111/puar.12199 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/puar.12199

Osborne, Stephen. P., McLaughlin, Kate. 2004. The Cross-Cutting Review of the Voluntary Sector: Where Next for Local Government– Voluntary Sector Relationships? Regional Studies. 38(5), p. 573–582. https://doi.org/10.1080/0143116042000229320 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/0143116042000229320

Patton, Michael Quinn. 2001. Qualitative evaluation and research methods. Newbury Park: CA: Sage Publications.

Pejcal, Jakub, Dostal, Jakub. 2017. Nongovernmental nonprofit organizations in social services: theories versus the real situation in the Czech Republic. Scientific Papers of the University of Pardubice. Series D, Faculty of Economics & Administration. Vol. 25(40), p. 177-187.

Pestoff Victor. 2012. Co-production, New Public Governance and Third Sector Social Services in Europe. VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations. Vol. 23, p.1102-1118. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11266-012-9308-7 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11266-012-9308-7

Pestoff, Victor. 2013. Co-production and Third Sector Social Services in Europe. New Public Governance, the Third Sector, and Co-Production. Ed V. Pestoff, T. Brandsen, B. Verschuere. Routledge, Business&Economics, p. 422. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203152294 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203152294

Peters, B. Guy, Erkkila, Tero, von Maravic, Patrick. 2016. Public Administration: Research Strategies, Concepts, and Methods. Routlege. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315671253 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315671253

Republic of Lithuania Law on Corporate Income Tax. 20 December 2001 No IX-675 (As last amended on 28 June 2018 No XIII-1333). Available online: https://e-seimas.lrs.lt/portal/legalAct/lt/TAD/1375cd60a50f11e8aa33fe8f0fea665f?jfwid=ck9gyaymo

Republic of Lithuania Law on Development of Non-governmental Organisations. 19 December 2013 No XII-717 (As last amended on 5 December 2019 – No XIII-2626). Available online: https://e-seimas.lrs.lt/portal/legalAct/lt/TAD/ TAIS.463439/asr

Sidor Monika, Abdelhafez Dina. 2021. NGO–Public Administration Relationships in Tackling the Homelessness Problem in the Czech Republic and Poland. Administrative Sciences. 11(1):24. https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11010024 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci11010024

Sowa Jessica E., Selden Sally Coleman, Sandfort Jodi R. 2014. No Longer Unmeasurable? A Multidimensional Integrated Model of Nonprofit Organizational Effectiveness. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly. Vol. 33:711. https://doi.org/10.1177/0899764004269146 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0899764004269146

Spiller Pablo T., Liao, Sanny. 2006. Buy, Lobby or Sue: Interest Groups' Participation in Policy Making – A Selective Survey. NBER Working Paper No. 12209. https://doi.org/10.3386/w12209 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3386/w12209

Tallberg, Jonas, Dellmuth, Lisa M., Agné, Hans, Duit, Andreas. 2018. NGO Influence in International Organizations: Information, Access and Exchange. British Journal of Political Science, Vol. 48(1), p.213-238. https://doi.org/10.1017/S000712341500037X DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S000712341500037X

Van Thiel, Sandra. 2014. Research Methods in Public Administration and Public Management. An Introducion. Routlege. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203078525 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203078525

VĮ Registrų centras Naujienos: Nevyriausybinės organizacijos kviečiamos įregistruoti NVO status, 2020. Available online: https://www.registrucentras.lt/naujienos/index.php?mod=news&act=view&id=47665 [2021-04-23].

VĮ Registrų centras. Juridinių asmenų duomenys. Available online: https://www.registrucentras.lt/p/1094 [2021-04-23].

VšĮ NVO teisės institutas, Nevyriausybinių organizacijų informacijos ir paramos centras. NVO atskaitomybė ir mokestinės lengvatos. 2021, Available online: http://www.3sektorius.lt/docs/210609NVO-mokestine-aplinka_2021-09-13_13:04:25.pdf

Yan Xinya, Lin Haiying, Clarke Amelia. 2018. Cross-Sector Social Partnerships for Social Change: The Roles of Non-Governmental Organizations. Sustainability. 10(2):558. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10020558 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/su10020558

Žakaitienė, Roma. 2020. Paslaugų teikimas savivaldybėse pandemijos (karantino metu) 2020 pavasarį, Available online: http://www.3sektorius.lt/docs/R_2020-12-11_14_56_11.Zakaitiene_pristatymas1204.pdf




How to Cite

Stasiukynas, A. ., Šukvietienė, A. ., & Sudnickas, T. . (2022). Factors Influencing NGO Activities: Lithuanian Case Study. International Journal of Criminology and Sociology, 11, 172–181. https://doi.org/10.6000/1929-4409.2022.11.18