Contributions of Ordinary Citizens Towards Development of a Society: The Case of Bangladesh
Keywords:Ordinary Citizens, Contributions, Development, Begum Rokeya Sakhawat Hossain, Khondker Azizur Rahman Salim, Bangladesh
This paper highlights the contributions of ordinary citizens to the development of a developing country - Bangladesh. The article discusses the contributions made by two ordinary citizens of Bangladesh, Begum Rokeya Sakhawat Hossain and Khondker Azizur Rahman Salim, toward building the society. It is argued in this paper that the participation of ordinary citizens in the development of a society is important. While the elites of a society may lay down the strategy, and sometimes the policies for developing such a society, ordinary citizens on their own can, in fact, play an important role in those regards. This paper highlights the strategies adopted by those two common citizens. It also chronicles their sufferings, sacrifices and achievements. The paper concludes that while the contributions made by Begum Rokeya Sakhawat Hossain is celebrated, those of Khondker Azizur Rahman Salim remains unrecognised by the Bangladesh society. The paper adopts qualitative research method. Information about Begum Rokeya Sakhawat Hossain have been collected from works done by her and by others on her. Khondker Azizur Rahman was interviewed both in Dhaka, Bangladesh and Maryland, the United States, where he currently lives.
Ahmed and Erfan, 2008. ‘Microcredit, men and masculinity,’ NWSA Journal, vol. 20, no. 2, Summer: 122-155.
Akmam, W., 2002. ‘Atrocities against humanity during the Liberation War in Bangladesh: A case of genocide,’ Journal of Genocide Research, vol. 4, no. 4, December: 543-559.
Anonymous. 1982. ‘Bangladesh: A national drug policy’. The Lancet, 19 June, 1982: 1405-1406.
Anonymous. 1985. ‘Bangladesh: Criticism of new drug policy’. The Lancet, 14 December, 1985: 1351-1352.
Bangladesh Police. 2009, ‘Crime statistics,’ available at http://www. police.gov.bd/index5.php accessed on 6 April, 2009.
Barthwal-Datta, Monika. 2009. ‘Securitizingthreats without the State: A case study of misgovernance as asecurity threat in Bangladesh.’ Review of International Studies, vol. 35, no. 2, April, pp. 277-300.
Brooks, E.C., 2007, Unveiling the garment industry: Transnational organizing and women’s work, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis.
Chowdhury, E. H., 2005, ‘Contesting narratives of the campaign against acid violence in Bangladesh,’ Meredians: Feminism, race, Transnationalism, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 163-192.
Chowdhury, Z., 1995, Thepolitics of essential Drugs: The makings of a successful health strategy: Lessons from Bangladesh. London: Zed Books with Dag Hammarskjöld Foundation.
Conticini, A., and Hulme, D., 2007, ‘Escaping violence, seeking freedom: Why children in Bangladesh migrate to the street,’ Development and Change, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 201-227.
Ghani, Ashraf and Lockhart, Clare, 2008, Fixing failed States. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hogg, C. H., 2006, ‘Unconvincing crackdown,’ Theworld today, vol. 62, no. 7 (July, 2006), pp. 12-13.
Hossain, I., 1998, ‘An experiment in sustainable human development: The Grameen Bank of Bangladesh’, Journal of third world studies, vol. 15, no. 1, Spring, pp. 39-55.
Hossain, S., and Siddiqi, D.M., 2008, Human rights in Bangladesh 2007, Ain o Salish Kendra, Dhaka.
Islam, M. S., ‘A Review on the Policy and Practices of Therapeutic Drug Uses in Bangladesh’, Calicut Medical Journal, Vol. 4, No. 4: 1-6.
Kapai, Puja. September, 2012. “Developing capacities for inclusive citizenship in multicultural societies: The role of deliberative theory and citizenship education.” Public Organization Review, vol. 12 no. 3, pp. 277-298.
Kamaran, Mehran. 2000. Politics and society in the developing world. New York: Routledge.
Khan, S., 2009, ‘Violence against women: Bangladesh Context,’ available at hurights.or.jp/asia-pacific/040/02.htm accessed on 6 April 2009.
Mascarenhas, A., 1971, The Rape of Bangladesh, Vikas, New Delhi.
Nafziger, E.W., and Richter, W.L., 1976, ‘Biafra and Bangladesh: The political economy of secessionist conflict,’ Journal of Peace Research, vol. 13, no. 2, pp.
Novak, J., 1993, Bangladesh: Reflections on the water. Indiana University Press, Bloomington, Indiana.
Quayum, Mohammad A. 2013. The essential Rokeya: Selected works of Rokeya Sakhawat Hossain (1880-1932). Leiden: Brill.
Rahman, A.T.R., 2006. Bangladesh in the Mirror: An Outsider Perspective on a Struggling Democracy, The University Press Limited, Dhaka.
Rahman, Sohel, 2006, ‘Development, democracy and the NGO sector: Theory and evidence from Bangladesh’, Journal of development societies, vol. 22, no. 4, December, pp. 451-473.
Sission, R. and Rose L. E., 1990, War and secession: Pakistan, India, and the creation of Bangladesh, University of California Press, Berkeley.
Zoellick, Robert 2008-2009, ‘Fragile states: Securing development’, Survival, vol. 50, no. 6, December-January, pp. 67-84.
Policy for Journals/Articles with Open Access
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post links to their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.