Is there “Black Panther” Movement in Israel? Protests of Ethiopian Jews - Sources of Conflict and Policy Implications

Authors

  • Benjamin Binyamin Gurstein Friedrich Shiller University of Jena, Otto-Rothe-Straße 37, Index 07549 Gera, Germany

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.6000/2371-1655.2019.05.02

Keywords:

Racism, Police Violence, the Beta Israel Community, Ethiopian Immigrants in Israel

Abstract

The migration of various ethnic groups creates a challenge for policymakers in general and civil society in particular. The concerns, as well as maintaining the status quo, could present obstacles in creating a homogenous and equitable civil society. As an immigrant-absorbing state, Israel is challenged both socially and economically in these realms. The Melting Pot concept was one of Israel's founding blocks since the 1950's fail. Has it failed? Is there truth to the protesters' allegations of institutionalized racism? In light of the demonstrations and accusations of racism in Israeli society, what changes should be set in motion?

References

Alexander, T.(1996). Tetreth: Ass stories by Ethiopian Jews, Yedioth Ahronoth, Tel Aviv. Ya, Khmer for a degree
Ben-David, L. (2014). Police powers to search for weapons on his body Of a person for the purpose of preventing violent offenses. Israel Chamber of Justice: Jerusalem. (online source) https://main.knesset.gov.il/Activity/Info/Legal DepartmentSurveys/Survey060214.pdf
Ethiopian Jews Association. (2019). Various articles. Ethiopian Jews Association (website) https://www.iaej.co.il/
State Audit Committee. (2016). State Audit Committee Summary of Friday, February 15, 2016. Knesset: Jerusalem.
Edelstein, A. (2001). A theoretical model for explaining juvenile delinquency and social deviation among Ethiopian immigrants in Israel. Encounter for Educational-Social Work, 34, 25-43.
Government Unit Report to Coordinate the Fight against Racism. (2018). Activity Report for 2018. Ministry of Justice: Jerusalem.
Survey of casualties. (2014). Crime Victims Survey, 2014. Israel Police. (Digital publication) https://www.police.gov.il/ Doc/TfasimDoc/7391.pdf
Herzog, A. (1990). Closes and Dependencies of Absence at the Absorption Center: The Hebrew University: Jerusalem.
Eyal, P. (2009). Depoe Provera, a contraceptive method that is given by injection. Woman to Woman - Feminist Center Haifa: Haifa.
Blender, D.C. (2018). Old and New Shifts in Israeli Society - A View from Public Opinion Surveys. Israeli Democracy Institute. (Electronic version) https://www.idi.org.il/parliaments/22242/ 22263
Vail, S.W. (1994). ""The Cultural Background of Ethiopian Immigrants and the Transition to Israeli Society"", Achievements and Challenges in the Absorption of Ethiopian Immigrants, edited by Gila Noam, Joint-Israel, Jerusalem.
Netzer, W., Polish, H. (1988). A Legend of Aliyah. Ministry of Education: Jerusalem.
Salmon, E. (1993). Beta Israel and their Christian neighbors in Ethiopia: Analyzing key concepts at different levels of cultural embodiment. Doctoral dissertation, Hebrew University of Jerusalem: Jerusalem.
Peled, A., Ben Artzi, A., Levin, A., Suleiman, L., Nashaf, A., Warszewski, A., Lerinman, N. (2017). Profiling, position paper, snapshot in Israel and lessons from the world. Clinic for Multiculturalism and Diversity, Faculty of Law, Hebrew University, Mount Scopus: Jerusalem.
The Immigration, Absorption and Diaspora Committee. (2016). Police violence against various groups in the population, December 12, 2016. The introduction of the Information and Research Center. Knesset: Jerusalem. (Electronic version) https://www.iaej.co.il/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/violence-police-towards-groups-population-mmm-2016.pdf
McGinley, A.A. S. (2016). Policing and Collision of the Men, Inside: Lecture Law Studies. Tel Aviv University: Tel Aviv. (Pp. 497-544)
Kozminsky, L., Cloire, R.A. (2010). Building a professional identity of teachers and teacher teachers in a changing reality. Inside: Study and Research in Education, Editor Dan Inbar. Mofet Institute: Jerusalem.
Rabinovich, M. (2017). Integration of Ethiopian students in the education system. The introduction of the Research and Information Center. Knesset: Jerusalem.
Peled, P. (2016). Position Paper: That's not the way. The Clinic for Multiculturalism and Diversity is provided by the Israeli Society for Ethiopian Jews. November 2016. https://hebarb. csmd.huji.ac.il/
Police and company. (2003). Issue # 7 ""Policing in a Multicultural Society"". April 2003.
Central Bureau of Statistics. (2018). The population of Ethiopian origin in Israel - data collection on the occasion of the Sigd holiday. November 05, 2018. Central Bureau of Statistics: Jerusalem. (Electronic version) www.cbs.gov.il
Israel Police. (2013). Information booklet. Israel Police. Israel Police. (Alcatcon version). https://www.police.gov.il/Doc/TfasimDoc/ hip.pdf
Riklis, T.A. (2017). Expressions of racism and discrimination against boys and girls in Israel - in the education system and in the law enforcement system. Down to the fight against racism in Israel.
Association for Civilian Winners. (2019). Police violence. (Electronic version) https://law.acri.org.il
Bustin, A. (2008). Immigrant Absorption Studies: Society and Culture. Ethiopian men: Why is it so difficult for them? New Studio Echo, 94, 11-51.
Israeli, L.A. (2015). ""The longing for the Land of Israel and the journey to it"", in: Forex website, retrieved on: 2015.5.2 Online link.
Levi Strauss, D. (2006). Race, history, culture. Wrestling: Tel Aviv.
Ettinger, K.A. (2001). Between Ethiopia and Israel. Jerusalem: Swanit Association for the Advancement of Online Education. Ministry of Education: Jerusalem.
Kaplan, s. (1987). The Origin of Beta Israel: Five Methodological Warnings. Times 33: Jerusalem. (Electronic version). https://www.ybz.org.il/_Uploads/dbsAttachedFiles/Article_33.2(1).pdf
Ziva, E. (2016). Racism in medicine, the politics of segregation in health. Touch 'Print: Tel Aviv.

Yours, N. (2014). The integration of Ethiopian immigrants in Israel with a snapshot. Institute for Immigration and Integration, Ruppin Academic Center. (Electronic version) https://www.ruppin.ac.il/ Research Institutes / Institute-Immigration-Social Integration / Journal-Migration / Documents / Vol_4_Report_Karin_Amit.pdf
Appraiser, S.W. (2002). Ethiopian Jewish Heritage Beta Israel Community in Ethiopia and Israel. Published by the Educational Center for Settlement Education and Youth Aliyah Division of Boarding Education and Training: Tel Aviv.
Prime Minister's Office. (2018). Government Plan for Integrating Ethiopian Immigrants Activity Summary for 2017. Prime Minister's Office: Jerusalem.
Taub Center. (2015). Education and employment among Israelis of Ethiopian origin. Taub Center. (Electronic version) http://taubcenter.org.il/
Journals
YNET. 31.10.06. Anyone who decided to throw blood of Ethiopians infected with racism. (Digital article) https://www.ynet.co.il/ articles/0,7340,L-3322120,00.html
Country. (January 25, 1996). The ""blood affair"" of Ethiopian immigrants is revealed. Haaretz newspaper. (Digital article) https://www.haaretz.co.il/news/education/1.1158711
Haaretz. (08.05.15). First stop in the deprivation campaign: Ethiopian segregation in schools continues. Haaretz newspaper. (Electronic version). https://www.haaretz.co.il/news/ education/.premium-1.2632079
News 13. (29.02.2016). Documentation: The Last Moments of the late Joseph Salamsa, electrified by a police officer for no reason. (Electronic version). Https://13news.co.il/10news/ mmnews/135218
Haaretz. (03.05.2015). Ethiopian protest reaches Tel Aviv: ""The new generation has a full stomach, they want to unload."" Haaretz newspaper. (Electronic version). https://www.haaretz.co.il/ news/education/1.2627515
Haaretz, (Aug 19, 2019). New Police Regulations Limit Right to Protest in Israel. Bar Peleg and Josh Breiner. (Electronic version). https://www.haaretz.com/
Maariv. (23.10.2018) A new and comprehensive study states: Ethiopians and Arabs suffer more from police violence. Maariv newspaper. (Electronic version). https://www.maariv. co.il/news/israel/Article-667177
WallaNews. (01.05.2015).
Network 13. (11.02.18). ""Stingy and Nice"": What are the stigmas about Yemenis and where did they come from? News 13. (Electronic version). http://10tv.nana10.co.il/Article/? ArticleID=1282975
Shabbat Square. 14.06.15. The court closed the case against the policeman who beat an Ethiopian soldier. (Electronic version). Https://www.kikar.co.il/174130.html
YNET. 27.04.2015. Documentation: A police officer attacked a soldier and hit him. (Electronic version). https://www.ynet.co.il/articles/0,7340,L-4651020,00.html
YNET. (14.06.15) The beaten soldier is disappointed: ""Closing the case - delusional"". (Electronic version). https://www.ynet.co.il/articles/0,7340,L-4668409,00.html
Legislation
Criminal Procedure Law, 1996;
Government Resolution 1958);
Police Ordinance [New Version], 1971
References in English
Abbink, G. J. (1984). The Falashas Ethiopia and Israel, the problem of Ethnic Assimilation. (Social Anthropologische Cahiers, 1 (XV). Nijmegen.
Aronson, J., Fried, C. B., & Good, C. (2002). Reducing the effects of stereotype threat on African American college students by shaping theories of intelligence. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 38(2), 113-125.
https://doi.org/10.1006/jesp.2001.1491
Bruneau, E. G., & Saxe, R. (2012). The power of being heard: The benefits of ‘perspective-giving' in the context of intergroup conflict. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48(4), 855-866.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2012.02.017
Canetti-Nisim, D., Halperin, E., Sharvit, K., & Hobfoll, S. E. (2009). A new stress-based model of political extremism personal exposure to terrorism, psychological distress, and exclusionist political attitudes. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 53(3), 363-389.
https://doi.org/10.1177/0022002709333296
Cannon, T. (1970). The Story of The Black Panther Party. PEOPLES PRESS: San Francisco, CA 94110.
Dweck, C. S., Chiu, C. Y., & Hong, Y. Y. (1995). Implicit theories and their role in judgments and reactions: A word from two perspectives. Psychological Inquiry, 6(4), 267-285.
https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327965pli0604_1
Yzerbyt, V. Y., Coull, A., & Rocher, S. J. (1999). Fencing off the deviant: The role of cognitive resources in the maintenance of stereotypes. Journal of personality and social psychology, 77(3), 449-462.
https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.77.3.449
Haslam, N. (2006). Dehumanization: An integrative review. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 10(3), 252-264.
https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327957pspr1003_4
Stephan, W. G., & Stephan, C. W. (2000). An integrated threat theory of prejudice. Reducing prejudice and discrimination. In Oskamp, S. (Ed.).Reducing prejudice and discrimination (pp. 23-45). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.

Downloads

Published

2019-12-20

Issue

Section

Articles