Technologies Related with the Artificial Insemination in Buffalo
In buffalo oestrus behaviour has a lower intensity than in cows and is much more difficult to detect, limiting theapplication of artificial insemination (AI) program. Several methods of heat detection have been developed for use incattle; these include visual observation, heat mount detectors, tail paint, chin-ball markers, teaser animals and electronicdevices. In buffalo, unlike cattle, the female are receptive to mounting activity mainly by the bull and occasionally byother cows. Consequently unless a buffalo bull is to be left running with the herd it can be difficult to know when oestrusis occurring. The presence of a teaser bull is helpful to identify buffaloes in heat; in this case the standing oestrus is themost reliable sign referable to a next ovulation. Other heat detection aids utilized in buffalo include: pedometers; vaginalprobes; pressure sensitive telemetry device (Heat Watch®). In order to increase the use of AI easy managementschemes, that not require the identification of oestrus, have been studied. These schemes are based on themanipulation of the hormonal events occurring during the oestrous cycle as: manipulate peripheral progesteroneconcentration (by PGF2α or progesterone releasing device); manipulate follicular growth and timing of ovulation (byGnRH and PGF2). A brief description of these technologies, with special reference to synchronization protocols toapply fixed time AI in buffalo, are presented in this review. The potential application of predetermining the sex ofoffspring will be also discussed, with reference to the techniques available for commercial practice in buffalo.
Oestrus detection, teaser bull, automatic system, hormonal treatment, sexing technology
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