The Pregnancy Diagnosis in Buffalo Species: Laboratory Methods
Pregnancy diagnosis plays an important role in the reproduction management of ruminants since embryonicmortality has a substantial impact on the fertility of a herd. Most of the embryonic losses occur during the first days afterfertilization and during the process of implantation. So it is very important to discriminate, with an early pregnancydiagnosis, non-pregnant from pregnant animals. Hormone analysis to detect pregnancy may be utilize as a more simpletechnique as an alternative of rectal palpation or ultrasound. In the last years, a large polymorphic family of placentaexpressedproteins has been discovered in ruminant species and used for pregnancy diagnosis. Members of this familyare named pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG), being synthesized in the mono-and binucleate cells of theruminant’s trophectoderm. Part of them is released in the maternal blood circulation where they can be assayed bydifferent laboratory techniques. Due to large variety of expressed molecules and to large variations in the posttranslationalprocessing of the PAG, different immuno-systems present different ability to quantify the PAG released inblood. The assay of PAG can also bring very interesting information for researchers working in programs focused on thestudy of embryonic and fetal mortalities, as well as on embryo biotechnology, animal nutrition or infections diseasesresulting in pathologies affecting the pregnancy.
Pregnancy marker, hormone, progesterone, estrone sulfate, PAG, embryonic mortality
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