The Intricacies Involved in the Analysis and Interpretation of Hammer Transfer Stain/s in a Crime Scene


  • Samir Kumar Bandyopadhyay University of Calcutta
  • Nabanita Basu University of Calcutta



Blunt force trauma, Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, Hammer, Transfer Stain, Head hit, crime scene.


Bloodstain Pattern analysis particularly deals with the reconstruction of dynamic bloodletting events from static bloodstain patterns. Bloodstain patterns often help to sequence events that might have occurred at a crime scene. It can also be used to draw inference about the position of the victim/s, perpetrator/s and bystander/s (if any) at the crime scene. This paper is aimed at intricate analysis/interpretation of transfer stains produced by blunt ended objects at a crime scene. By way of experiments performed within a laboratory setting this paper attempts at establishing that hammer transfer stain or possible weapon transfer stain at a crime scene does not indicate that that particular instrument has been used to murder the victim/s. Also when blood drips over hammer and when a hammer falls under gravity onto a blood pool, the stain patterns formed are particularly different. This particular information under certain circumstances could particularly contribute to sequencing of events at a crime scene. Again, different blunt ended objects were found to produce similar transfer stain patterns. Hence transfer stain patterns should be interpreted in coherence with other relevant circumstantial evidence at the crime scene.

Author Biographies

Samir Kumar Bandyopadhyay, University of Calcutta

Computer Science and Engineering

Nabanita Basu, University of Calcutta

Computer Science and Engineering


Amin, T. M., & Sirs, J. A. (1985). The blood rheology of man and various animal species. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Physiology 70, 37-49.
Barksdale, L., Sims, E., & Vo, C. (2004). Knife Impression Bloodstain Patterns. Crime Scene Investigation Special Issue Anil Aggrawal's Internet Journal of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology. Retrieved from indexpapers.html
Beaver, K., & Paul, J. (2011, January 28). Are criminals just stupid? Retrieved October 18, 2014, from http://marginalrevolution. com/marginalrevolution/2011/01/are-criminals-just-stupid.html
Bevel, T., & Gardner, R. M. (2002). Bloodstain pattern analysis: With an introduction to crime scene reconstruction (3rd ed.).
Blanco, J. I. (n.d.). Murderpedia, the encyclopedia of murderers. Retrieved October 18, 2014, from
Brodbeck, S. (2012). Introduction to Bloodstain Pattern Analysis. SIAK Journal- Journal of Police Science and Practice, 2, 51-57. doi:10.7396/IE_2012_E
Department of Chemistry, University of North Carolina Wilmington. (n.d.). Density and Volume. Retrieved October 15, 2014, from scienceMajors/Density_PH.pdf
Department of Chemistry, University of North Carolina Wilmington. (n.d.). Fluid Friction. Retrieved October 14, 2014, from (n.d.). Different types of hammers - what there are, and what each type is designed for. Retrieved October 12, 2014, from
Illes, M., & Boue, M. (2011). Investigation of a Model for Stain Selection in Bloodstain Pattern Analysis. Canadian Society of Forensic Science, 44(1), 1-12.
James, S. H. (1998). Scientific and legal applications of bloodstain pattern interpretation. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
James, S. H., Kish, P. E., & Sutton, T. P. (2005). Principles of bloodstain pattern analysis: Theory and practice. Boca Raton, FL: CRC.
Nordby, J. J. (2006). Final Analysis Forensics. Retrieved from
Scientific Working Group On Bloodstain Pattern Analysis. (2009, April). FBI — Standards and Guidelines - Scientific Working Group on Bloodstain Pattern Analysis: Recommended Terminology - April 2009. Retrieved from about-us/lab/forensic-science-communications/fsc/april2009/ standards/2009_04_standards01.htm
Shen, A. R., Brostow, G. J., & Cipolla, R. (0). Toward automatic blood spatter analysis in crime scenes. Retrieved from
Sleigh, A. (2006). The Momentum Equation and Its Applications. Retrieved October 11, 2014, from uk/CIVE/CIVE1400/Section3/momentum.htm
Toplikar, D. (2010, December 13). Blood stain with hammer imprint shown in ex-FBI agent's murder trial - Las Vegas Sun News. Retrieved from 2010/dec/13/blood-stain-showed-imprint-hammer-says-analyst-ex-/
Washington CBS Local. (2013, January 3). FBI: Hammers, Clubs Kill More People Than Rifles, Shotguns « CBS DC. Retrieved October 20, 2014, from 2013/01/03/fbi-hammers-clubs-kill-more-people-than-rifles-shotguns/




How to Cite

Bandyopadhyay, S. K., & Basu, N. (2015). The Intricacies Involved in the Analysis and Interpretation of Hammer Transfer Stain/s in a Crime Scene. International Journal of Criminology and Sociology, 4, 107–118.