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Analysis of Recurrent Events with Associated Informative Censoring: Application to HIV Data Pages 20-27

Jonathan Ejoku, Collins Odhiambo and Linda Chaba


Published: 29 March 2020

Abstract: In this study, we adapt a Cox-based model for recurrent events; the Prentice, Williams and Peterson Total -Time (PWP-TT) that has largely, been used under the assumption of non-informative censoring and evaluate it under an informative censoring setting. Empirical evaluation was undertaken with the aid of the semi-parametric framework for recurrent events suggested by Huang [1] and implemented in R Studio software. For validation we used data from a typical HIV care setting in Kenya. Of the three models under consideration; the standard Cox Model had gender hazard ratio (HR) of 0.66 (p-value=0.165), Andersen-Gill had HR 0.46 (with borderline p-value=0.054) and extended PWP TT had HR 0.22 (p-value=0.006). The PWP-TT model performed better as compared to other models under informative setting. In terms of risk factors under informative setting, LTFU due to stigma; gender [base=Male] had HR 0.544 (p-value =0.002), age [base is < 37] had HR 0.772 (p-value=0.008), ART regimen [base= First line] had HR 0.518 (p-value= 0.233) and differentiated care model (Base=not on DCM) had HR 0.77(p-value=0.036). In conclusion, in spite of the multiple interventions designed to address incidences of LTFU among HIV patients, within-person cases of LTFU are usually common and recurrent in nature, with the present likelihood of a person getting LTFU influenced by previous occurrences and therefore informative censoring should be checked.

Keywords: Recurrent events, Loss to follow-up, HIV, Prentice, Williams and Peterson Gap-Time, Informative censoring.


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