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Comparison of Two Different Protocols for the Treatment of Acute Escherichia coli Mastitis in Dairy Cattle
Pages 48-53
Vahideh Hamidi-Sofiani, Hossein Hamali and Katayon Nofouzi

DOI: https://doi.org/10.6000/1927-520X.2017.06.02.1

Published: 20 July 2017

 


Abstract: E-coli mastitis is one of the most frequent causes of environmental mastitis in the dairy cattle worldwide. The purpose of this field study was to compare the efficacy of ceftiofur (HCL) in conjunction with supportive measures versus supportive measures alone for treatment of dairy cows affected with naturally occurring acute form of E. coli mastitis. From January 2014 to December 2016 a total number of 100 cows naturally affected by acute E-coli mastitis randomly were allocated into two groups. A milk sample from the affected quarter was collected for bacteriological tests on the first day of treatment. In group A (control), fifty cows received ceftiofur (HCL) 1mg/5kg/BW, flunixin meglumine 2.2mg/kg, calcium borogluconate 40%, 250ml and hypertonic saline (Nacl 7.2 %,) 5ml/kg. In group B (treatment, n=50), cows received the same drugs mentioned for group A, except ceftiofur (HCL) which replaced by placebo. In the group A, 41cows (82%) and in the group B, 2 cows (4%) were survived respectively. The rates of quarter health recovery in the groups A and B were 31.7% and 0% respectively. The differences between two groups were significant (P≤0.01).

In conclusion our results indicated that treatment of cows affected with naturally occurring acute form of E. coli mastitis without application of effective antibiotic(s) such as ceftiofur (HCL) and fluid therapy almost impossible.

Keywords: Dairy cow, E-coli, Mastitis, ceftiofur.

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An Investigation of Proteolytic, Lipolytic Activity and Biofilm Formation by Psychrotrophic Bacteria Isolated from Buffalo Milk
Pages 54-60

Marciele Bogo, Karine Lauer Cruz, Álvaro Gonzalez Revello, Ana Paula Guedes Frazzon and Amanda de Souza da Motta

DOI: https://doi.org/10.6000/1927-520X.2017.06.02.2

Published: 20 July 2017 


Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the enzymatic activity of 21 bacteria isolated from refrigerated raw buffalo milk, as well as to evaluate the production of biofilm by these bacteria. Proteolytic, lipolytic and lecithinase activity, as well as the production of exopolysaccharides were evaluated at different temperatures. For all of the psychrotrophic bacteria, biofilm formation on microtiter plates was evaluated at different temperatures and in the presence of residual buffalo and bovine milk. All cultures showed a proteolytic profile while 9 cultures showed lipase activity. Lecithinase production was found in 7 of the evaluated psychrotrophic bacteria. The ability to produce exopolysaccharides was found in 12 bacteria. Of the 21 bacterial isolates, 16 were biofilm producers at 7°C. At 23°C, 20 isolates were found to be biofilm producers. At a temperature of 37°C, biofilm formation by 17 isolates was weak. In the presence of residual buffalo milk, 7 were biofilm producers, while 16 bacteria produced biofilm in residual bovine milk. The results of this study show that many isolates of psychrotrophic bacteria from raw buffalo milk have the potential to produce extracellular enzymes as well as biofilm. This deserves special attention when considering the best practices to recommend during the collection of raw milk in establishments which process milk.

Keywords: Psychrotrophic bacteria, proteolysis, lipolysis, adhesion, milk.

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Influence of Parity on Opting Optimal Season for Breeding in Murrah Buffaloes
Pages 35-40
Ramu Muthu Selvam and Govindaraju Archunan

DOI: https://doi.org/10.6000/1927-520X.2017.06.01.5 

 

 


Abstract: Environmental factors place a crucial role in reproductive management of buffaloes by regulating their estrous cycle. Conception occurs if breeding takes place in favorable season where availability of sufficient herbage and water. Influence of parity on selection of breeding seasonal, leads to conception, was not yet reported in murrah buffaloes. Therefore, the present investigation was carried out to analyse the influence of parity on selecting an optimal season for breeding among murrah buffaloes in south India. Sixty reproductively active murrah buffaloes belonged to southern part of Indian subcontinent were recruited in the study and grouped based on their parity. Estrus behaviour, date of mating and consequent pregnancy was recorded for every individual buffalo. A conception rate of 81.67% was achieved with natural mating. Among the 49 pregnant animals, 12 were nulliparous (n=19), 15 were primiparous (n=16) and 22 were multiparous (n=25). Conception rate was high during winter (32.65%), followed by autumn (26.53%), monsoon (20.41%) and pre-winter (20.41%). Major factors such as age, low reproductive efficiency during late winter and early autumn, delayed resumption after calving appears to affect the conception rate. Prolonged summer, extended from March to July, noticed in recent years decreases the duration of other seasons like spring and autumn. Effective breeding of nulliparous was witnessed on winter, primiparous during autumn and multiparous was scheduled from monsoon to pre-winter. The present study concludes that selection of optimal season for breeding was rather influenced by the parity of individual buffaloes.

Keywords: Nulliparous, Primiparous, Multiparous, Breeding, Conception.

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Feeding Traits and Body Dimensions of Lime and Parkote Buffaloes Raised by Small-Scale Farms in Kaski, Nepal
Pages 61-65
Y. Hayashi, M.K. Shah and H. Kumagai

DOI: https://doi.org/10.6000/1927-520X.2017.06.02.3

Published: 20 July 2017

 


Abstract: Thirty farms that raised Lime or Parkote female buffaloes in Kaski were selected for the survey of animal census, feeding traits and body dimensions in the rainy season and the dry season. The average number per farm was 0.76 in Lime and 0.27 in Parkote. The average of age and parity was 8.2 years old and 4.4 in Lime, and 6.6 years old and 2.8 in Parkote, respectively. The mean dry matter (DM) supply of roughage, supplemental feed and total feed was higher in the dry season than in the rainy season (11.8 kg/head/day vs. 10.3 kg/head/day, 1.2 kg/head/day vs. 0.8 kg/head/day, 13.0 kg/head/day vs. 11.1 kg/head/day, respectively, P<0.05). Although the average DM supply of roughage per body weight (BW) and total feed supply per BW had no significant differences between the seasons, the mean DM supply of supplemental feed per BW was higher in the dry season than in the rainy season (0.35% of BW vs. 0.22% of BW, P<0.01). The BW, heart girth (HG) and hip born width (HW) of Parkote were higher than those of Lime (401.7 kg vs. 368.0 kg, 185.7 cm vs. 179.8 cm, 50.4 cm vs. 48.4 cm, respectively, P<0.05). However, the body length, wither height (WH) and criss-cross height showed no significant differences between Lime and Parkote (127.4 cm and 129.8 cm, 118.7 cm and 119.5 cm, 118.0 cm and 119.4 cm, respectively). The BW estimation using body dimensions may play a significant role to know about the buffalo body condition. With the measured BW, HG, WH and HW in this survey, the formulae to estimate BW of Lime and Parkote buffaloes were established.

Keywords: Body dimension, feeding trait, Lime, Nepal, Parkote.

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The Reality of Buffalo Breeding in Basra Governorate
Pages 8-18
Mudhar A.S. Abu Tabeekh, Hamed Abdul Majid Abdul Mohsen and Amal A. Al Jaberi

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1927-520X.2017.06.01.2

Published: 28 March 2017

 


Abstract: Buffaloes are essential part of the economy in many countries and provide sustainable food in addition to being working animals. Inefficiency in reproduction has become problematic in recent years due to a number of factors and although much research concentrates on the female, very little is known about the male buffalo reproductive system. To address this deficiency in the literature, testes were obtained from 20 clinically healthy water buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis) bulls aged 3 years old. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the Sertoli cells were columnar to triangle shaped with many processes. In the middle portion of the seminiferous tubules, the Sertoli cell had two types of processes with sheet like and slender cord like appearances. The sheet like processes had simple smooth margins originating from Sertoli cells, surrounding the surfaces of spermatogonia and spermatocytes. The slender cord like processes formed networks around other spermatogenic cells. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the Sertoli cells contained a large irregular shaped nucleus with deep nuclear membrane indentations, few mitochondria, aggregates of ribosomes and few rough endoplasmic reticulum which were observed within the indentations. Each nucleus contained a multivesicular nuclear body, containing vesicles, tubules and ribosome like dense structures. The work herein describes the structure and location of key reproductive cells within the water buffalo. Understanding the features of the male reproductive system is essential in order to advance studies into the reproductive decline of this species and the Bovidae family.

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