Journal of Cancer Research Updates

A Guide for Future Therapeutics Based upon the Function of Enzymes and Proteins in Human Pathologic Metabolic Processes
Pages 56-69

Umesh C. Gupta and Subhas C. Gupta


Published: 8 Dec 2017

Abstract: The investigation updates information on enzymes and proteins related to their classification, functions, properties, and role in human pathology. Enzymes are any of a group of complex or conjugated proteins that are produced by living cells and act as catalysts in specific biochemical reactions. The three types of enzymes, metabolic, digestive and food-based, play key roles in the treatment of all the major sources of morbidity and mortality including cancer, dementia, diabetes, cardiac disease, and obesity. The ability to accurately target metabolic pathways and pathologic pathways allow adaptations by changing the expression of specific enzymes implicated in the pathogenesis or prevention of diseases. This overview provides a summary to guide the development of enzyme-based therapeutics. The changes of expression and activity of lipid metabolising enzymes are directly regulated by oncogenic signals. Hyper activation of the Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase [PARP] pathway may be exploited to selectively kill cancer cells. Amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides play a major role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Sphingolipid metabolites play important roles in the regulation of glucose metabolism. In diabetes and insulin resistance, sphingosine kinase 1 (SPK1) is the key enzyme in the sphingolipid metabolic pathway. SPK1 gene therapy may represent a novel approach to wound healing related to diabetes. Several P450s enzymes modulate important steps in the pathogenesis of ischemic heart disease (IHD). The homologous sirtuin (Sirt) family of proteins have beneficial effects in metabolism and aging-related diseases in mammalian systems. These proteins play an important role in maintaining neuronal health during aging.

Keywords: Mitochondria, metastasis, obesity, caloric restriction, cardiovascular disease.

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