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A Declaration of Conflicting Interests policy applies to a specific policy. A journal may expect a conflict of interest statement or conflict of interest disclosure from a presenting or publishing author.

The Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) declares in its Guidelines on Good Publication Practice (2003) that:

'Conflicts of interest occur when authors, reviewers, or editors have concerns that are not fully clear, and that may affect their decisions on whatever is published. They have been defined as those that would create a thoughtful reader feel misled or deceived when announced later.'

Scholars, researchers, and professionals may have possible conflicts of interest that could impact – or could be seen to – have an impact on their research. As a result, any Lifescience Global journals require a precise declaration of conflicting interests allowing a statement to be carried within the paginated published article.

A possible conflicting interest might result from relationships, allegiances, or hostilities to particular groups, organizations, or interests, which may impact one's judgments or procedures excessively. The subject is susceptible when such claims are individual and/or may result in personal gain.

Articles will be judged honestly and will not certainly be discarded when any competing interests are declared.

Precedents of conflicts of interest might incorporate the following, although it is not an exhaustive listing:

  • Producing collected fees for advising.
  • Holding obtained research funding.
  • Having been applied by a relevant organization.

Owning assets or shares in an organization that the publication of your paper might influence.

Having acquired funds compensating you for visiting a relevant symposium or talk.

If additional interests that the thoughtful reader might consider have changed your research, you may also require to declare them.

*Note that it is not required that details of financial methods be revealed when a competing interest is declared

Author Assurances Concerning Conflicting Interests

In your Journal Publishing Contributor Agreement, you will be obligated to authenticate that:

  • All kinds of financial support, including pharmaceutical organization support, are acknowledged in your Contribution.
  • Commercial/financial relationships might give an opinion of conflict of interest connected to the Contribution are disclosed in a covering note following the Contribution and will be addressing such possible conflicts of interest with the Editor as to whether disclosure of this knowledge with the published Contribution is to be conducted in the journal.
  • You have not confirmed an agreement with any supporter of the research published in the Contribution that restricts you from publishing both positive and negative outcomes or prevents you from publishing this research without the sponsor's former approval.
  • You have checked the manuscript submission guidelines to see whether the journal requires a Declaration of Conflicting Interests and have complied with the requirements specified where such a policy exists.

How do I check the Manuscript Submission Guidelines to see if the Journal I am Submitting or Publishing Requires a Declaration?

Please refer to the Manuscript Submission Guidelines on the journals page to check the policy of the Lifescience Global journal in which you are submitting or publishing to ensure you comply with any specific requirements needed.

Editor Obligations Regarding Conflicting Interests

The same obligations equally apply to editors or guest editors writing an editorial published in the journal.

How Do I Make A Declaration?

Submitting your article in a journal requires you to make a Declaration of Conflicting Interests, include such declaration at the end of the manuscript after Acknowledgements and before the Funding Acknowledgement, Notes (if relevant), and References, under the heading 'Declaration of Conflicting Interest.' If no conflict exists, please state that 'The Author(s) declare(s) no conflict of interest.'

*Please note, a Conflict of Interest Statement will not appear in journals that do not require a declaration of conflicting interests. Where a declaration is necessary, the disclosure information must be specific and include any financial connection that all authors of the study have with any sponsoring organization and the for-profit concerns the organization serves.

Additional Awareness

You may find the following helpful sources to refer to for more information on Conflict of Interest procedures, current codes of practices, and more general good practice about journal publication ethics:

MANUSCRIPT SUBMISSION:

An online submission and tracking service via the Internet facilitates a speedy and cost-effective submission of manuscripts. The full manuscript has to be proposed online via Lifescience Global Canada Inc. Processing Management System (PMS) Manuscript Processing System (PMS) https://www.lifescienceglobal.com/pms/.

Please submit your paper in MS Word (.doc or .docx / LaTeX) file format according to the detailed Manuscript Preparation Guides given below. The number of pages is at the authors' discretion; on average, papers are 10-25 pages long. When developing your article for publication, we firmly advise that you pay particular care to your research methods, key results, and language. To ensure rapid review and publication, please adhere to these guidelines.

It is imperative that before submission, authors should carefully proofread the files for special characters, mathematical symbols, Greek letters, equations, tables, and images, to ensure that they emerge in the proper format.

References, figures, tables, structures, etc., should be noted in the text where they have been discussed. The author also should present figure legends/captions. 

Originality:

Submissions must be original work, the copyright to which is not earlier published elsewhere. Originality, creativity, and a cross-disciplinary method or perspectives are greatly encouraged. Striking duplication of papers and conforming submissions are not allowed. In such cases, the Publisher owns the right to withdraw publishing rights from authors and co-authors of the article for an actual-time—possible copyright dispute with the copyright holder and consent to our Link to Publication Ethics and Malpractice Statement. Publication Ethics and Publication Malpractice Statement. For detailed please visit: PUBLISHING ETHICS AND INTEGRITY

Language:

Given that the manuscript must be drafted in English by the author, and if English is not the author's origin tongue, we recommend that the paper be proofed to assure its efficiency and develop the language class. The Publisher can also provide a copy-editing service free of cost.

COPYRIGHT:

Authors who publish in Lifescience Global Canada Inc. journals retain copyright to their work. Submission of a manuscript to the respective journals implies that all authors have read and agreed to the content of the Covering Letter or the Terms and Conditions. It is a condition of publication that manuscripts submitted to a journal have not been published and will not be simultaneously submitted or published elsewhere.

Lifescience Global Canada Inc. (Licensor) grants the author(s) a worldwide, royalty-free, non-exclusive, and non-commercial perpetual license to exercise the rights in the article published as stated below:

  • All articles are published under the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode), which permits free distribution and reproduction in any medium that the work is properly cited.
  • The authors retain the copyright of their published Open Access article. They will also have the right to:
  • Reproduce the article, to incorporate the article into one or more collective works, and to reproduce the article as incorporated in collective works;
  • Create and reproduce Derivative Works for educational purposes.
  • Distribute Copies
  • Any commercial application of the work, with prior agreement by the author, is exclusively granted to Lifescience Global Canada Inc. 

Download Copyright Form (Link for copyright form)

Manuscript Preparation:

Manuscripts presented for research and review articles in the respective journal should be split into the following sections:

  • Title
  • Title Page
  • Structured Abstract
  • Keywords
  • Text Aim
  • Conclusion
  • List of Abbreviations (if any)
  • Approval for Publication
  • Availability of Data and Materials
  • Funding
  • Conflict of Interest
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Appendices
  • Figures/Illustrations (if any)
  • Chemical Structures (if any)
  • Tables (if any)
  • Supportive/Supplementary Material (if any)

Title:

The title should be specific and concise and must not be more than 130 words. 

Title Page:

The title page should combine article title, author (s) full name and affiliation, corresponding author(s) names absolute affiliation/address, along with phone, fax, and e-mail.

As recommended by the Reporting guidelines, information about the study should be a part of the title (especially for randomized or clinical trials, detailed reviews, and meta-analyses).

Authors should also present a short 'running title'. The title, running title, line correspondent footnote, and keywords should be rewritten as shown in the original manuscript.

Structured Abstract:

An article's abstract should be its clear, concise, and precise summary, should no more than 250 words, and include the specific sub-headings (as in-line or run-in headings in bold). 

The headings can adjust but must state the purpose of the study, details of the members, measurements, methods, principal verdicts, and conclusion.

Keywords:

The author must provide 6 to 8 keywords. Keep important and relevant keywords that researchers in your field will attempt so that your article will emerge in a database search. The keywords should be contained in the title, and they should appear many times in the article. In biomedical disciplines, MeSH terms are a large 'common vocabulary' reference to draw keywords from https://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/meshhome.html.

Text Aim:

The main text should begin on a separate page and split into the title, abstract, and main text. The text may be subdivided further according to the fields to be discussed, backed by the List of Abbreviations (if any), Conflict of Interest, Acknowledgements, and Reference sections. For Review Articles, the manuscript should be prepared into title page, abstract, and the main text. The text may be partitioned further according to the fields to remain explained, accompanied by the Acknowledgements and Reference sections. The Review Article should discuss any previous notable current and old reviews in the area and contain a broad discussion starting with the general background of the field. It should then move on to discuss the remarkable features of recent developments. The authors should bypass presenting material that has already been declared in a former review. The authors are advised to show and discuss their observations in summary. Non-assimilated terms from Latin or other languages should be italicizede.g.per se et al., etc.

For Research Articles, the manuscript should begin with the title page and abstract followed by the main text, which needs to be structured into separate sections as Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusion, Ethics Approval, and Consent to Participate, Human and Animal Rights, Conflict of Interest, Acknowledgements, and References.

All randomized clinical investigations must include a flow diagram, and authors should give a completed randomized trial checklist (see CONSORT Flow Diagram and Checklist; www.consort-statement.org) and a test protocol.

For case reports, the authors should follow the CARE guidelines. The CARE checklist should be performed as a separate file.

The full term for an abbreviation should introduce its first appearance in the text, except it is a standard unit of measurement. The reference numbers should be given in square brackets in the text. Italics should be done for Binomial names of organisms (Genus and Species) for emphasis and unfamiliar words or phrases. 

Introduction:

The Introduction section should include the background and aims of the research comprehensively.

Materials and Methods:

This section provides details of the methodology used along with information on any previous efforts with corresponding references. The author should include any details for further modifications and research. Sufficient information should be provided to the reader about the original data source to enable the analysis, appropriateness, and verification of the results reported in the study.

The Method Section needs to be sufficiently detailed regarding the data presented and the results produced from it. This section should include all the information and protocol gathered for the study when it was being communicated. If the assignment is funded or financially supported by an organization to conduct the research, it should be considered in the Method Section. Methods must be result-oriented. The statement regarding the approval by an independent local, regional or national review committee (e.g., the ethics committee and institutional review board) should be part of the Methods Section.

Experimental:

The author should not report repeated information in the text of an article. A calculation section must include experimental data, facts and practical development from a theoretical perspective.

Results:

The essential and main findings of the study should come first in the Results Section. The tables, figures, and references should be given in sequence to emphasize the vital information or observations related to the research. The author should avoid the repetition of data in tables and figures. Results should be precise.

Discussion:

The author should explore the significance of the results of the work and present a reproducible procedure. The author should avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.

The Results and discussions may be presented separately or combined in a single section with short and informational headings.

Conclusion:

The author may give a small paragraph summarising the article's contents, presenting the research outcome, or proposing further study on the subject at the end of the article under the Conclusion section.

Funding:

The authors need to declare the funding sources of their manuscripts clearly by providing the name of the funding agency or financial support along with allotted grant/award number in round brackets (if applied), for instance, 

"This work was financially supported by [name of the funding agency] (Grant number XXX).

Similarly, if a paper does not have any particular funding source, and is part of the profession of the authors, then the name of the employer will be expected. Authors will have to state that the funder was involved in writing, editing, approval, or decision to publish the article.

Greek Symbols and Special Characters:

Greek symbols and special characters often undergo formatting changes and get corrupted or lost while preparing a manuscript for publication. 

Authors are encouraged to consult reporting guidelines. These guidelines give a set of recommendations comprising a list of items relevant to their specific research design.

List of Abbreviations (if any):

If abbreviations are used in the text either, they should be specified in the text where first used, or the author should provide a list of abbreviations.

Appendixes:

If there is a need to present lengthy but essential methodological details, use appendices, which can be a part of the article. An individual appendix should be titled APPENDIX, while more extra than one can be titled APPENDIX A, APPENDIX B, and so on.

Supportive/Supplementary Material (if any):

Supportive/Supplementary material intended for publication must be numbered and referred to in the manuscript but should not be a part of the submitted paper. The author should provide In-text citations and a section with the heading "Supportive/Supplementary Material" before the "References" section. 

Research Ethics and Policies

Conflict of Interest:

The author must acknowledge financial contributions and any possible conflict of interest under the heading 'Conflict of Interest'. Authors need to list the source(s) of funding for the research. 

Acknowledgments:

All individuals listed as authors must have devoted substantially to the conception, execution, analysis, or summarising of the work and are required to indicate their particular contribution. Anyone (individual/company/institution) who has substantially contributed to studying important intellectual content or was involved in drafting or revising the manuscript must also be acknowledged.

Guest or honorary authorship based solely on position (e.g., research supervisor, departmental head) is discouraged.

Unethical Behavior:

Anyone may point out unethical behavior and misconduct to the Editor and Publisher with enough shreds of evidence. In consultation with the Publisher, the Editor will initiate an investigation against this Unethical misconduct, complete the procedure until an unbiased decision is reached, and maintain confidentiality throughout the research process. The author should be allowed to reply to all minor or major accusations.

In case of serious breaches, the employer may be informed by the publishers, where appropriate, by the Editor/Publisher, after reviewing all available information and shreds of evidence or seeking help from experts in that field.

Consent for Publication:

If the manuscript has individuals' data, such as personal detail, audio-video material, etc., the author's consent should be taken by the individual. In children's cases, permission should be obtained from the parent or the legal guardian.

References:

References follow the text in a section headed REFERENCES (use first-level head format identified earlier).

All references should be double-spaced and use a hanging indent.

Use title case for all titles (capitalize all words except prepositions such as of, between, through), articles (such as a, the, and an), and conjunctions (such as but, and, or; however, capitalize them if they begin the title or the subtitle).

Capitalize only the first word in hyphenated compound words, unless the second word is a proper noun or adjective (for example, don’t capitalize it in The Issue of Self-preservation for Women, but do capitalize it in Terrorist Rhetoric: The Anti-American Sentiment).

All references should be in alphabetical order by the first authors’ last names

Include first names for all authors, rather than initials, but use first-name and middle-name initials if an author used initials in the original publication.

List all authors. It is not acceptable to use et al. in the References section unless the work was authored by a committee.

For repeated authors or editors, include the full name in all references (note: this is a change from the third edition of the ASA Style Guide). Arrange references for the same author in chronological order, beginning with the oldest.

Baltzell, E. Digby. 1958. Philadelphia Gentlemen. Glencoe, IL: Free Press

Baltzell, E. Digby. 1964. The Protestant Establishment. New York: Random House.

Baltzell, E. Digby. 1976. “The Protestant Establishment Revisited.” American Scholar 45:499-519.

When an author appears in both single-authored references and as the first author in a multiple-authored reference, place all of the single-authored references first, even though they may not be in the proper chronological order.

Hoge, Dean R. 1979. "A Test of Theories of Denominational Growth and Decline." Pp. 179-197 in Understanding Church Growth and Decline 1950-1978, edited by D. R. Hoge and D. A. Roozen. New York and Philadelphia: Pilgrim Press.

Hoge, Dean R., Benton Johnson, and Donald A. Luidens. 1994. Vanishing Boundaries: The Religion of Mainline Baby Boomers. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press.

When the same first author appears in multiple references, arrange them alphabetically by the last name of the second author.

Alba, Richard and Philip Kasinitz. 2006. “Sophisticated Television, Sophisticated Stereotypes.” Contexts 5(4):74-77.

Alba, Richard, John R. Logan, and Brian J. Stults. 2000. “The Changing Neighborhood Contexts of the Immigrant Metropolis.” Social Forces 79(2):587-621.

When including more than one work by the same author(s) from the same year, add letters to the year (2010a, 2010b, 2010c) and then list the references for that author and year alphabetically by title.

Fyfe, James J. 1982a. “Blind Justice: Police Shootings in Memphis.” The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 73(2):707-22.

Fyfe, James J. 1982b. “Race and Extreme Police-Citizen Violence.” Pp. 173-94 in Readings on Police Use of Deadly Force, edited by J. J. Fyfe. New York: Police Foundation.

Reference Examples

Book with One Author

Author's full name, inverted so that last name appears first. Year. Book Title in Title Caps and Italicized. Publishing City: Publisher.

Note that the two-letter state abbreviation should be given only if needed to identify the city. For a publisher located in New York City, Chicago, Los Angeles, or Boston, for example, it would not be necessary to include the state abbreviation.

Note that the word "volume" is capitalized and abbreviated but not italicized.

Gurr, Ted Robert, ed. 1989. Violence in America. Vol. 1, The History of Crime. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Mason, Karen. 1974. Women's Labor Force Participation. Research Triangle Park, NC: National Institutes of Health.

Book with Two or More Authors

Same as with one author, but do not invert authors’ names after the first author. Separate authors’ names with a comma (unless there are only two authors), and include the word and before the final author.

Note that the word “edition” is abbreviated, and not italicized or capitalized.

Corbin, Juliet, and Anselm Strauss. 2008. Basics of Qualitative Research. 3rd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

 Edited Volume (when citing the entire volume)

 Same as book reference but add "eds." to denote book editor'(s') name(s).

 Hagan, John and Ruth D. Peterson, eds. 1995. Crime and Inequality. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Chapter in an Edited Volume

Put the chapter title in quotes.

Use Pp. and page numbers to designate where the chapter is found in the volume.

Italicize the book title, then give the book editor’(s’) name(s).

Do not invert editor'(s)' name(s).

Use initials instead of first and middle names for editor(s).

Clausen, John. 1972. "The Life Course of Individuals." Pp. 457-514 in Aging and Society. Vol. 3, A Sociology of Stratification, edited by M.W. Riley, M. Johnson, and A. Foner. New York: Russell Sage.

Scholarly Journal Article

Author's full name, inverted so that last name appears first. Year. “Article Title in Title Caps and in Quotes.” Journal Title in Title Caps and Italicized Volume Number (Issue Number):page numbers of article.

Note that there is no space after the colon preceding page numbers.

For multiple authors, invert last name of first author only.

Separate with commas, unless there are only two author.

Use and between last two authors.

Conger, Rand. 1997. "The Effects of Positive Feedback on Direction and Amount of Verbalization in a Social Setting." American Journal of Sociology 79:1179-259.

Coe, Deborah L. and James D. Davidson. 2011. “The Origins of Legacy Admissions: A Sociological Explanation.” Review of Religious Research 52(3):233-47.

Magazine or Newspaper Article

Ziff, Larzer. 1995. "The Other Lost Generation," Saturday Review, February 20, pp. 15-18.

Newspaper Article (author unknown)Lafayette Journal & Courier. 1998. Newspaper editorial. December 12, p. A-6.

Public DocumentsBecause the nature of public documents is so varied, the form of entry for documentation cannot be standardized. The essential rule is to provide sufficient information so that the reader can locate the reference easily.

Reports, Constitutions, Laws, and Ordinances

New York State Department of Labor. 1997. Annual Labor Area Report: New York City, Fiscal Year 1996 (BLMI Report, No. 28). Albany: New York State Department of Labor.

Ohio Revised Code Annotated, Section 3566 (West 2000).

Telecommunications Act of 1996, Public Law 104-014,  110 U.S. Statutes at Large 56 (1996).

U.S. Bureau of the Census. 1990. Characteristics of Population. Vol. 1. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

U.S. Constitution, Article 1, Section 4.

Legislation Examples

Court cases and legislative acts follow a format stipulated by legal publishers.

The act or case is listed first, followed by volume number, abbreviated title, and the date of the work in which the act or case is found.

The volume number is given in Arabic numerals, and the date is parenthesized.

Court cases are italicized, but acts are not.

Case names, including v., are italicized.

Brown v. Board of Education, 347 U.S. 483 (1954).

If retrieved from an online database, such as LexisNexis or HeinOnline, provide access information.

Ohio v. Vincer (Ohio App. Lexis 4356 [1999]).

U.S. Congress. House of Representatives. Fair Minimum Wage Act of 2007. H.R. 2. 110th Congress, 1st Session, 2007. Retrieved July 11, 2010  (http://thomas.loc.gov).

Unpublished Materials

Name of author. Year. Title of Presentation. Location where the article was presented or is available or has been accepted for publication but has not yet been published.

Conger, Rand D. Forthcoming. “The Effects of Positive Feedback on Direction and Amount of Verbalization in a Social Setting.” Sociological Perspectives.

Smith, Tom. 2003. “General Social Survey.” Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Sociological Association, August 16, Atlanta, GA.

Dissertation or Thesis

King, Andrew J. 1976. “Law and Land Use in Chicago: A Pre-history of Modern Zoning.” PhD dissertation, Department of Sociology, University of Wisconsin, Madison. 

Print Edition of a Book Accessed through an Online Library

Daniels, John. 2010. Apathetic College Students in America. Middletown, IL: University of Middletown Press. Retrieved April 6, 2011(http://site.ebrary.com/lib/collegestudies/docDetail.action?docID=1010101010).

Archival Sources

Meany Archives, LRF, Box 6, March 18, 1970. File 20. Memo, conference with Gloster Current, Director of Organization, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.

Electronic Sources

 For electronic references, follow the same guidelines as for print references, adding information about the medium, such as the URL and date of access.

For online periodicals (journals, magazines, and newspapers), use the same format as for printed periodicals, unless they are available ONLY in online form. In that case, simply add the date viewed and the URL for retrieving the article.

Manuscript Writing Style

In addition to providing guidelines for the general formatting of a manuscript and for in-text citations and the page of references, which follows a document, the ASA Style Guide also specifies a particular style of writing for presenting sociological work.

Basics

Generally, avoid writing in the first person, unless instructed to do so. Avoid giving an opinion, unless the purpose of the writing is to make an argument.

Use the active voice (click here to view the OWL's resources on active voice).

Spell out words such as percent, chi-square and versus, rather than using their abbreviations (except when presenting data in tables or graphs).

Avoiding Plagiarism

Whenever using data that someone else collected, or whenever referring to that data, or whenever using another person’s ideas, whether published, unpublished, or available electronically, reference the author(s). This is true whether quoting their work verbatim or paraphrasing it (click here to view the OWL's resources on avoiding plagiarism).

Clarity

Use straightforward language, avoiding jargon, superlatives, wordy phrases and common expressions. Pay close attention to such “nuts and bolts” issues as consistent use of verb tenses and accuracy in spelling, punctuation, sentence construction, and following a well-thought-out outline.

Bias  

Gender

Unless gendered terms are important to the analysis or demographics, use nongendered terms wherever possible.

Instead of man, men, or mankind, use person, people, individual, or humankind.

Then there will be peace for mankind becomes Then there will be peace for humankind.

When appropriate, use a plural noun (people) or a pronoun (they). Replace gendered pronouns with an article when possible (instead of hers).

A girl can play her guitar becomes People can play their guitars or A person can play the guitar.

Race and Ethnicity

Avoid racial and ethnic stereotyping.

Be as specific as possible when using terms that describe a race or ethnicity.

Chinese is more specific than Asian; Puerto Rican is more specific than Latino.

Use the following terms:

* African American (no hyphen)

* black (not capitalized)

* white (not capitalized)

* Hispanic, Chicano, Latino, or Latina (Latino if gender is unknown or known to be male; Latina if known to be female)

* American Indian or Native American (no hyphen)

* Asian or Asian American (no hyphen)

Avoid using the following:

    * Negro

    * Afro-American

    * Oriental

Acronym Usage

The first time you use an acronym, you should give the full name with the acronym in parenthesis.

Afterward, you can use only the acronym.

According to a Department of Energy (DoE) report...

Later in the text:

The DoE suggests that..

Verb Tense

Different sections of a paper may call for different verb tenses but use the same tense within each section.

Literature Review

Use the past tense to communicate that the research being reviewed has been completed.

In their study of declining congregations, Hoge and Roozen (1979) found that institutional factors were also important.

It is possible to mix tenses if it helps to explain the finding.

In their study of declining congregations, Hoge and Roozen (1979) found that institutional factors may also help to explain the congregational decline.

Methods Section

Use the past tense to explain the methods used in the research.

Data collection consisted of twenty interviews in each congregation between the months of November 2010 and February 2011.

Results Section

Use either past or present tense but don’t mix them.

These results suggest that institutional factors do help explain the congregational decline.

OR:

These results suggested that institutional factors did help explain the congregational decline.

Punctuation

In addition to following general writing conventions, the ASA Style Guide also provides the following guidelines

Use only one space after punctuation marks (do not use two spaces between sentences).

Punctuation marks should be in the same font (including italics) as the text that precedes it. (Note: this is a change from the previous usage in The Chicago Manual of Style). The respondent replied, “I loved the movie, Crash!”

When numbering a series of items in a list, use the convention (1), (2), (3) rather than 1. or 1).

The study finds that three variables are important predictors of openness to outside groups: (1) endorsement of the group, (2) political climate, and (3) cultural compatibility.

Figures / Tables / Illustrations (if any):

The authors are expected to submit good-quality figure(s) in PDF, PPT, MS Word, TIFF, or JPEG versions.

Requirement

  • Width = 8.5 inches (In-between the required size)
  • Height = 11 inches (In-between the required size)

All figures should be in vector scale (except half tone, photograph.)

Chemical Structures:

Chemical structures MUST be prepared in ChemDraw/CDX and provided as a separate file.

Tables:

Data Tables should be submitted in Microsoft Word or Excel format.

  • Each table should include a title/caption explaining the details discussed in the table. Detailed legends may then follow.
  • Table number in bold font, i.e., Table 1, should follow a title. The title should be in small case with the first letter in caps. 
  • Columns and rows of data should be made visibly distinct by ensuring that the borders of each cell are performed as black lines.
  • Tables should be numbered in Arabic numerals sequentially in order of their citation in the body of the text.
  • Reference cited in both the table and text, please insert a lettered footnote to refer to the numbered reference in the text.
  • It is adequate to present data in Tables to avoid unnecessary repetition and reduce the length of the text.
  • The author must ensure the citation of each table in the text.
  • The author should explain symbols and non-standard abbreviations at the end of the text.

LANGUAGE AND EDITING:

Manuscripts containing language inconsistencies will not be published. Authors should seek professional assistance for correcting grammatical, scientific, and typographical errors before submitting the revised version of the article for publication. 

PROOF CORRECTIONS:

Authors are required to proofread the PDF versions of their manuscripts before submission. To avoid delays in publication, proofs should be checked immediately for typographical errors and returned within 48 hours. 

The corresponding author will be entirely responsible for assuring that the revised version of the manuscript, including all the proposed amendments, permits the endorsement of all the authors of the manuscript.

REVIEWING AND PROMPTNESS OF PUBLICATION

All papers submitted for publication are immediately subjected to preliminary editorial scrutiny by the Editor-in-Chief regarding their suitability. The Editor-in-Chief determines if the manuscript:

  • Falls within the scope of the journal and
  • Meets the editorial criteria of Lifescience Global Canada Inc. in terms of originality and quality.

Manuscripts that appear suitable are then subjected to double-blind peer-review by, usually three, neutral eminent experts. The services of well-known international experts are sought through invitations to peer-review a submitted manuscript, keeping in view the manuscript's scope and the reviewers' expertise. The anonymity of reviewers ensures objective and unbiased assessment of the manuscript by the reviewers.

Before sending the manuscripts to reviewers, Lifescience Global Canada Inc. asks for consent from potential reviewers about their availability and willingness to review. Correspondence between the editorial office of the journal and the reviewers is kept confidential. The reviewers are expected to provide their reports in a timely fashion since a prompt review leads to the timely publication of a manuscript that is beneficial not only to the authors but also to the scientific community.

The editorial process and peer-review workflow for each journal are taken care of by a team of Senior Editors, Editorial Board Members (EBMs), and dedicated Journal managers who have the required expertise in their specific fields.

Lifescience Global Canada Inc. carries out an independent review of all articles. The reviewers are chosen according to their expertise from our regularly updated referee database.

Based on reviewer comments, the Editors may recommend acceptance, revision, or rejection of a manuscript.

  • Reviewed may be categorized as:
  • Requires minor changes
  • Requires major changes
  • Rejected but may be resubmitted
  • Rejected with no resubmission

Lifescience Global Canada Inc. requests not to have the manuscripts peer-reviewed by those experts who may have a competing interest with the author(s) of a submitted manuscript. Editors can't be aware of all competing interests; therefore, it is assumed that the reviewers would inform the Editor-in-Chief/Handling Editor if they notice any potential competing interest during the review of a manuscript.

The authors are usually requested to resubmit the revised paper within five days, and it will then be returned to the reviewers for further evaluation by the publishers. The Editor-in-Chief of the journal is the final authority to accept or reject the manuscript.

PUBLICATION CHARGES POLICY

Lifescience Global Canada Inc. is committed to disseminating research and scholarly publications as widely as possible. It supports the principle that 'the study results that have been publicly funded should be freely accessible in the public domain. Therefore, it encourages researchers to make their research available through Open Access (OA).

Open access publishing is not without costs. Lifescience Global Canada Inc. provides open access publications partly pay the expenses of journal production, online hosting, and archiving from authors and their research supporters by charging a publication fee for each article they publish. For further details please visit: PUBLICATION CHARGES.

SPECIAL FEE WAIVERS:

Lifescience Global Canada Inc. offers waivers and discounts to those corresponding authors: who are based in low-income countries. 

50% FEE concession to authors from any of the below countries, which the World Bank classified as Low-income economies as of 2021. For further details please visit FEE WAIVERS

PLAGIARISM PREVENTION

Lifescience Global Canada Inc. practices the iThenticate software, which detects instances of overlapping and similar text in submitted manuscripts. This software controls content against a database of periodicals, the Internet, and an extensive article database. It generates a similarity report, highlighting the percentage overlap between the uploaded article and the published material. For further details please visit: PLAGIARISM PREVENTION

Lifescience Global Canada Inc. strictly follows the COPE guidelines to detect plagiarism; for more clear insight, authors may refer to flowcharts provided by COPE.

APPEALS AND COMPLAINTS:

Generally, the editorial decisions are not reverted. Authors who think that their manuscript was rejected due to a misunderstanding or mistake may seek an explanation for the decision. Appeals must give sound reasoning and compelling evidence against the criticism raised in the rejection letter. A difference of opinion, interest, novelty, or suitability of the manuscript for the journal will not be recognized as an appeal. The EIC and other relevant editors will consider the request, and the decision after that taken by the journal will be deemed final. Acceptance of the manuscript is not guaranteed even if the journal agrees to reconsider the manuscript. The reconsideration process may involve previous or new reviewers or editors and substantive revision.

Authors who wish to make a complaint should refer them to the Editor-in-Chief of the journal concerned. Lifescience Global Canada Inc. is constantly striving to improve its publication practices. If you are not satisfied with any procedure of the processing of your manuscript, then please let us know at the following e-mail address with full details:

For assistance, please contact: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.. For complaints, please contact: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..

REPRINTS:

Lifescience Global Canada Inc. provides excellent professionally printed reprints. The minimum limit of reprint order is 100 copies.

PRINTED COVERS:

Printed covers are available at extra cost.

For further details, please visit: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

PERMISSION FOR REPRODUCTION:

Published/reproduced material should not be included unless you have obtained written permission from the copyright holder. 

For obtaining permission for reproducing any material published in an article by Lifescience Global Canada Inc. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. for consideration.

CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS:

For proposals to publish conference proceedings in this journal, please contact us at e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..

Appeals and Complaints
Copyrights

MANUSCRIPT SUBMISSION:

All articles are readily available and immediately accessible online upon publication.

Readers can read, download and/or print OPEN access articles without any charge.

Articles are licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0) (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode), which allows the open distribution and reproduction in any means, provided that the work is perfectly cited.

Lifescience Global follows the double-blind peer-review method for submissions of all manuscripts to its journals. It is the kind of peer-reviewing in which the identity of the authors and reviewers is not revealed in the submitted manuscript. 

All submitted articles are subject to an extensive peer-review consultation with the Journal's Editorial Board and independent external referees. All manuscripts are evaluated rapidly and the decision taken by the Journal's Editor-in-Chief based on all the peer-reviewers' comments, which are then communicated to the author(s).

Submissions from the Editor-in-Chief and Editorial Board Members will deal free peer-review and be presented to diverse editors to determine acceptance.

All efforts are performed to expedite the peer-review process leading to timely publication.

Authors publishing with Lifescience Global retains the copyright to their work.

Authors have the flexibility to publish a wide range of articles in Lifescience Global journals, e.g., short communications, full-length research and review articles, as well as supplements, conference proceedings, and case studies.

Human and Animal Rights: All clinical studies must be managed according to the Declaration of Helsinki principles. For all manuscripts publishing data from studies including human participants, formal review and approval by a relevant institutional review board or ethics committee are needed.

For research concerning animals, the authors should indicate whether the methods followed were under the standards described in the eighth edition of Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals grants.nih.gov/grants/olaw/guide-for-the-care-and-use-of-laboratory-animals_prepub.pdf, published by the National Academy of Sciences, The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C.).

Research Involving Animals

Research Involving Plants:

All experimental research on plants (either cultivated or wild) must comply with international guidelines. The manuscript must indeed include a declaration of compliance of field studies with relevant guidelines and/or relevant permissions or licenses obtained by the IUCN Policy Statement on Research Involving Species at Risk of Extinction and the Convention on the Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora.

Patient Consent:

Compliance with the guidelines of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (http://www.icmje.org/) is recommended, following the patient's consent for research or participation in a study for Bentham Publication as per the applicable laws and regulations regarding the privacy and/or security of personal information, including, but not limited to, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 ("HIPAA") and other U.S. federal and state laws relating to confidentiality and security of personally distinguishable evidence, the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) (EU) 2016/679 and member state implementing legislation, Canada's Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act, India's Information Technology Act and related Privacy Rules, (together "Data Protection and Privacy Laws").

It is the responsibility of the author to ensure that:

  • Must not be mentioned patients' names, initials, or hospital numbers anywhere in the manuscript (including figures).
  • Authors are responsible for obtaining patient consent-to-disclose forms for all recognizable patients in videos, photographs, or other information that may be published in the journal, in the acquired study, or on the journal's website and for presenting the manuscript to the recognizable patient for review before submission.
  • The consent-to-disclose form should indicate specific use (publication in the medical literature in print and online, knowing that patients and the public will have passage) of the patient's information and images in figures or videos. It must contain the patient's signature or that of a legal guardian, along with a statement that the patient or legal guardian has been offered the opportunity to review the identifying materials and the accompanying manuscript.
  • Suppose the manuscript has an individuals' data, such as personal detail, audio-video material, etc.; In that case, permission should be gained from that individual. In the case of children, consent should be obtained from the parent or the legal guardian.
  • Must make a specific declaration of such approval and consent-to-disclose form in the copyright letter and a stand-alone paragraph at the end of the article, especially in the case of human studies where inclusion of a statement regarding obtaining the written informed consent from each subject or subject's guardian is a must. The guarantor or corresponding author should retain the original. Editors may request to provide the original forms by fax or e-mail.
  • Proper consent should follow all such case reports before publishing.

Editors may request that authors provide documentation of the formal review and recommendation from the institutional review board or ethics committee responsible for oversight of the study. The editors reserve the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the requirements mentioned earlier. The author will be held responsible for false statements or failure to fulfill the criteria mentioned above.

Non-identifiable Images: Anonymous images that do not identify the individual directly or indirectly, such as through any identifying marks or text, do not require formal consent, for example, x-rays, ultrasound images, pathology slides, or laparoscopic images.

If not obtaining consent, concealing the identity through eye bars or blurring the face would not be acceptable.

Appeals and Complaints: Generally, the editorial decisions are not reverted. However, authors who consider that their manuscript was rejected due to a misunderstanding or mistake may seek an explanation for the decision. Appeals must give sound reasoning and compelling evidence against the criticism raised in the rejection letter. A difference of opinion as to the interest, novelty, or suitability of the manuscript for the journal will not be considered an appeal. The EIC and other relevant editors will consider the request. The decision after that taken by the journal will be deemed final. Acceptance of the manuscript is not guaranteed even if the journal agrees to reconsider the manuscript. The reconsideration process may involve previous or new reviewers or editors and substantive revision.

Authors who wish to make a complaint should refer them to the Editor-in-Chief of the Journal concerned. Complaints to the Publisher may be e-mailed to This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..

Plagiarism Prevention: Lifescience Global uses the iThenticate software to detect instances of overlapping and similar text in submitted manuscripts. iThenticate software checks the content against a database of periodicals, the Internet, and a comprehensive article database. It generates a similarity report, highlighting the percentage overlap between the uploaded article and the published material. Any instance of content overlap is further examined for suspected plagiarism according to the publisher's Editorial Policies. Lifescience Global allows an overall similarity of 20% for a manuscript to be acknowledged for publication. The similarity percentage is further checked keeping the following important points in view:

Low Text Similarity: The text of every submitted manuscript is examined using the Content Tracking mode in iThenticate. This mode ensures that manuscripts with an overall low percentage similarity (but which may have a higher similarity from a single source) are not neglected. The acceptable limit for similarity of text from a single source is 5%. Suppose the similarity level is above 5%. In that case, the manuscript is returned to the author for paraphrasing the text and citing the source of the copied material.

It is essential to mention that the text taken from different sources with an overall low similarity percentage will be considered plagiarized content if most of the article is a combination of copied material.

High Text Similarity: There may be some manuscripts with an overall low similarity percentage but a higher percentage from a single source. A manuscript may have less than 20% overall similarity, but 15 % similar text is taken from a single article. The similarity index in such cases is higher than the approved limit for a single source. Authors are encouraged to thoroughly rephrase similar text and properly cite the original quote to bypass plagiarism and copyright violation.

Types of Plagiarism: We all understand that scholarly manuscripts are drafted after a careful review of previously published articles. It is therefore not easy to draw a clear boundary between legitimate representation and plagiarism. However, the following important features can assist in identifying different kinds of plagiarized content. These are:

  • Reproduction of others' words, sentences, ideas, or findings as one's own without proper acknowledgment.
  • Text recycling, also known as self-plagiarism. The author practices a former publication in different paper without proper citation and acknowledgment of the original source.
  • Poor paraphrasing, copying complete paragraphs, and modifying a few words without changing the structure of original sentences or changing the sentence structure but not the words.
  • Verbatim copying of text without placing quotation marks and not acknowledging the work of the original author.
  • They are correctly citing a work but poorly paraphrasing the original text is considered unintentional plagiarism. Similarly, manuscripts with language between paraphrasing and quoting are not acceptable. Authors should either paraphrase properly or quote and, in both cases, cite the original source.
  • Higher similarity in the abstract, introduction, materials and methods, and discussion and conclusion sections indicates that the manuscript may contain plagiarized text. Authors can easily explain these parts of the manuscript in many ways. However, author technical terms and sometimes standard methods cannot be rephrased; therefore, Editors must carefully review these sections before deciding.

Plagiarism in Published Manuscripts: Published manuscripts containing plagiarized text are retracted from the journal website after careful investigation and approval by the Journal's Editor-in-Chief. A 'Retraction Note' and a link to the original study are published on the plagiarised manuscript's electronic version.

Copyrights: Authors who publish in Lifescience Global journals retain copyright to their work. Submission of a manuscript to the respective journals implies that all authors have read and agreed to the content of the Covering Letter or the Terms and Conditions. It is a condition of publication that manuscripts submitted to a journal have not been published and will not be simultaneously submitted or published elsewhere.

Lifescience Global (Licensor) grants the author(s) a worldwide, royalty-free, non-exclusive, and non-commercial perpetual license to exercise the rights in the article published as stated below:

  • All articles are published under the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode), which permits free distribution and reproduction in any medium that the work is properly cited.
  • The authors retain the copyright of their published article. They will also have the right to:
  • Reproduce the article, to incorporate the article into one or more collective works, and to reproduce the article as incorporated in collective works;
  • Create and reproduce Derivative Works for educational purposes.
  • Distribute Copies
  • Any commercial application of the work, with prior agreement by the author, is exclusively granted to Lifescience Global. 

Waiver: Authors grant to Lifescience Global (licensor) the right to retain all revenue from commercial sales of the author's published article in Lifescience Global journals.

Lifescience Global gives affordable article processing fees, standing amongst the most economical matched to other OPEN access journal publishers. An article-processing fee obligatory by the author/author's institution practices for every accepted article to cover the costs incurred by OPEN access publication.

Authors can self-archive post prints of their listed articles.

Authors can reproduce derivative works of the article for educational purposes and distribute its copies.

Publication Charges Policy: Lifescience Global is committed to disseminating research and scholarly publications as widely as possible. It supports the principle that 'the study results that have been publicly funded should be freely accessible in the public domain. Therefore, it encourages researchers to make their research available through Open Access (OA).

Open access publishing is not without costs. Lifescience Global provides open access publications partly pay the expenses of journal production, online hosting, and archiving from authors and their research supporters by charging a publication fee for each article they publish. 

Errata, Corrigenda, and Corrections in Published Articles: Authors and readers are advised to notify the Editor-in-Chief if they discover errors in published content, author's names, and affiliations or if they have reasons for concern over the legitimacy of a publication. In such cases, Lifescience Global will publish an ERRATUM or a CORRIGENDUM, in discussion with the Editor-in-Chief and authors of the article, and/or substitute or retract the article.

Article Withdrawal: Article(s) that have been accepted for publication but which have not been published with volume/issue/page information) that include errors or are determined to violate the publishing ethics guidelines such as multiple submission, fake claims of authorship, plagiarism, fraudulent use of data, or the like, maybe "Withdrawn" from the journal. Withdrawal means that the article files are removed and replaced with a PDF stating that the article has lived removed from the following Journal Lifescience Global. 

Article Retraction: If any manuscripts are published, having certain assigned information of volume/issue/page number, and it is found that there are infringements of professional, ethical codes in their content, such as plagiarism, excess similarity with some other article, fraudulent use of data, etc., then such manuscripts are retracted.

A retraction note entitled "Retraction: [article title]" (for example, Retraction: ABC experiment involving XYZ species) is published in the paginated part of the next scheduled issue of the journal and is also listed in the table of contents.

  • The Editor-in-Chief approves the retraction note of the concerned journal.
  • A link to the original study guides presented while this online.
  • A screen containing the retraction note appears before the electronic version of the article present on the website. A link for the complete article is present on the screen, i.e., to access the retracted article.
  • The link/webpage of the original article remains unchanged; however, a watermark is shaded on its downloadable PDF document to give the message that the article was retracted explicitly.

Concurrent Publication/Simultaneous Submission: It is a condition of publication that manuscripts submitted to the Lifescience Global journal have not been published and will not be simultaneously submitted or published elsewhere. Plagiarism is strictly forbidden, and by submitting the article for publication, the authors agree that the publishers have the legal right to take appropriate action against the authors if plagiarism or fabricated information is discovered.

Abstracts and posters of conferences, results presented at meetings (for example, to inform investigators or participants about findings), results from databases (data without interpretation, discussion, context, or conclusions in the form of tables and text to describe data/information where this is not easily presented in tabular form) are not considered before publication.

Authors who wish to publish translations of the articles that have been published elsewhere should ensure that they have appropriate permission(s), indicate clearly that the material has been translated and re-published, and show the primary source of the material. The Editor-in-Chief may request the related publications if he/she is concerned about overlap and possible redundancy.

Disclaimer: Responsibility for the content published by Lifescience Global in any of its journals, including any opinions expressed therein, rests exclusively with the author(s) of such content. To the maximum extent permitted by applicable law, Lifescience Global (on its behalf and behalf of its staff and members of its editorial board) disclaims responsibility for any injury and/or damage (whether financial or otherwise) to persons or property, resulting directly or indirectly from any ideas, methods, instructions, or products (including errors in the same) referred to in any content of Lifescience Global journals. Any dispute arising, including any claim, shall be governed exclusively by the laws of Mississauga, Canada.

Lifescience Global Canada Inc. is committed to disseminating research and scholarly publications as widely as possible. It supports the principle that 'the study results that have been publicly funded should be freely accessible in the public domain. Therefore, it encourages researchers to make their research available through Open Access (OA).

Open access publishing is not without costs. Lifescience Global Canada Inc. provides open access publications partly pay the expenses of journal production, online hosting, and archiving from authors and their research supporters by charging a publication fee for each article they publish.

After editorial approval and peer review, all submitted manuscripts are subject to an article-processing fee for OPEN ACCESS papers covering the cost of production.

Standard OPEN ACCESS article processing fee = US$ 330

Inclusive Bank Charges

Articles are licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0) (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode), which permits free distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided that the work is properly cited. All articles are archived in Portico.

POLICY ON FUNDED PUBLICATIONS

Lifescience Global complies with open access mandates of all funding organizations. Authors who publish in Lifescience Global journals hold the copyright to their published articles. Therefore, they can store a copy of the published manuscript to any open access repository for public archiving. Lifescience Global follows the subsequent policy for deposition of funded publications:

Authors can deposit the final published article in any other institutional, disciplinary or governmental repository. However, an acknowledgment must be produced to the original source of publication, accompanied by a link included to the published article on the journal's/publisher's website.

SELF-ARCHIVING POLICY

Authors retain the copyright to their articles; therefore, they can SELF-ARCHIVE their accepted manuscripts and published manuscripts on their websites, institutional depositories like PMC, or a cross-institutional subject repository like arXive.org. All articles are published following the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode), which permits unrestricted archiving, distribution, and reproduction any medium provided that the work is properly cited.

LONG-TERM ARCHIVING OF LIFESCIENCE GLOBAL CONTENT

To secure permanent access to our publications, Lifescience Global has an agreement with Portico to have long-term storage of the content published in its journals.