International Journal of Child Health and Nutrition

Effect of Probiotics on Infantile Colic in Breast-Fed Infants: A Randomized Single-Blind Clinical Trial - Pages 21-25

Hamed Roohanizadeh, Hasan Karami and Seyyed Abbas Hashemi


Published: 21 March 2019


Abstract:  Aim: This study examined the impact of probiotics on children's colic in breast-fed infants.

Methods: This study was a randomized single-blind clinical trial. 100 infants were referred to pediatric gastroenterology clinic of Avicenna diagnosed by gastroenterologist of children who suffered from infantile colic and they were qualified after justifying parents and obtaining written consent. (IRCT registration number: IRCT2016082829573N1).

Results: Results showed that there was a statistically significant difference in terms of crying time (p = 0.000) and the arrival and departure of the group. (p = 0.000).

Conclusion: The outcomes indicated that using probiotics could reduce colic in infants and improve the quality of life in this group.

Keywords:  Probiotics, colic, infantile.

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International Journal of Child Health and Nutrition

Dietary Diversity Score during Pregnancy is Associated with Neonatal Low Apgar Score: A Hospital-Based Cross-Sectional Study - Pages 26-34

Dan Yedu Quansah, Daniel Boateng, Louis Boafo Kwantwi, Anthony Owusu-Sekyere and A. Kofi Amegah


Published: 21 March 2019


Abstract:  Background: Apgar score is an established index of neonatal well-being and development. Nutrition during pregnancy is an accepted risk factor for neonatal low Apgar score.

Objective: To investigate the association between dietary diversity score and low Apgar score.

Methods: This was a hospital based cross-sectional study. The study participants were 420 mothers who delivered and were attending the postnatal clinic at the Cape Coast Metropolitan Hospital. Mothers’ dietary information during pregnancy was assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. In reference to the FAOs women’s Dietary Diversity Score (DDS), the subjects were categorized into low, medium or high DDS. The primary outcome was Apgar score. Apgar scores < 5 were classified as low.

Results: The mean age (± standard deviation, SD) of subjects was 26.7 ± 5.7 years with a range of 17 to 45 years. The prevalence of low Apgar score among the study population was 16.9%. Majority of the study participants had a low DDS in relation to low Apgar score whereas 7.5% had high DDS. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, the odds of low Apgar score in the low DDS group was three times higher than those who had high DDS (Adjusted odds ratio, AOR= 3.10, 95% confidence interval, CI=1.23-4.48).

Conclusion: Dietary diversity score during pregnancy was associated with a low Apgar score in the study area. The results of this study reinforce the significance of adequate nutrition during pregnancy in the study area.

Keywords:  Dietary diversity score, Apgar score, Pregnancy, Cape Coast Metropolitan Hospital, Neonate.

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International Journal of Child Health and Nutrition

Rural-Urban Differentials of Childhood Malnutrition in Bangladesh - Pages 35-42

Azizur Rahman and Md. Sazedur Rahman


Published: 21 March 2019


Abstract:  Malnutrition is a major health problem in developing countries and it affects childhood growth. Data from the 2014 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey were used in this study to explore the rural-urban disparities of malnutrition in children aged 0-59 months. Findings revealed that the prevalence of stunting, underweight and wasting were respectively as 39.6%, 35.7% and 16.7% for the rural children and 32.4%, 27.9% and 13.0% for the urban children. Both moderate and severe malnutrition were significantly higher in rural than urban community, and rural children ran about 1.3 times higher risk of becoming malnourished than their urban counterparts. The height and weight of children, mother’s BMI, parents’ education and family wealth index were found to be the significant factors associated with differentials at rural-urban malnutrition. Appropriate socioeconomic development, antenatal care in pregnancy and poverty reduction programs with a special emphasis on rural community would reduce the overall rural-urban inequality.

Keywords:  Rural-urban comparison, Bangladesh, severe and moderate malnutrition, stunting, underweight and wasting.

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International Journal of Child Health and Nutrition

Early Childhood Nutrition Knowledge of Caregivers in Tanzania - Pages 43-49

Victor B.A. Moxley, Maggie F. Graul, Nathan Stoneking, Cecily Hale, Scott Torres, Mary Linehan, Kerry Ann Dobies, Generose Mulokozi, Taylor H. Hoj, Benjamin T. Crookston, P. Cougar Hall and Joshua H. West


Published: 21 May 2019


Abstract:  Childhood stunting is a pressing health issue in Tanzania and results from chronic infections and inadequate nutrition. Educating caregivers on the nutritional determinants, their consequences, and appropriate solutions may improve nutrition-related practices among caregivers in Tanzania. The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with Tanzanian caregivers’ knowledge of childhood nutrition practices. Data for this study came from a cross-sectional survey of 4,095 caregivers of children under 24 months living in the Geita, Kagera, Kigoma, Mwanza, and Shinyanga regions of Tanzania. Complete responses relating to demographic and socioeconomic factors, media exposure, and early childhood nutrition knowledge were analyzed using multiple linear regression modeling techniques. Caregivers’ knowledge concerning proper early childhood nutrition practices was found to be significantly related to using a mobile banking account (p<.0001), owning a working radio with batteries (p<.0001), having watched television recently (p<.0001), residing in a southern lake region (p<.0001), affiliating with a Christian faith (p=0.0027), having more children under the age of 5 (p=0.0005), having received advice on maternal nutrition before pregnancy (p<.0001) and having received advice from a community health worker (p=0.0184). Living in a rural environment (p<.0001) and speaking a non-mainstream language (p<0.05) were significantly associated with decreased knowledge. The influences of media and technology, socio-demographic factors and traditional health education may be important in the development of accurate childhood nutrition knowledge among caregivers. These factors may be targeted for future community health worker efforts with vulnerable populations in Tanzania to prevent stunting.

Keywords:  Tanzania, child nutrition, media, knowledge, survey.