International Journal of Child Health and Nutrition

Effect of Nutritional Status and Associated Factors on Pneumonia Treatment Outcome among Under-Five Children at St. Paul’s Hospital Millennium Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia - Pages 194-200

Bizuhareg Teka Hailemariam, Tesfaye Girma Legesse and Kassahun Alemu


Published: 12 November 2018


Abstract:  Acute respiratory infection is still a major health problem among under-five children specifically in Ethiopia, where 38% of them are reported as living in the status of under-nutrition. However, there are studies limitation regarding the relationship of nutritional status of under-five children and outcome of pneumonia treatment. Institutional based cross-sectional study design had been employed to see the Effect of nutritional status and associated factors on pneumonia treatment outcome among under-five children in 2015. Data was collected using interview administered structured questionnaires and anthropometric measurement.

The study revealed that high probability of poor pneumonia treatment outcome 26(40%) among exposed groups. Those children to house wife mothers 11(16.92%), smoker family member 6(9.23%), non-fully immunized 9(13.85%), less than 500birr spent for a child 26(40%) are observed to be with poor pneumonia treatment outcome. The risk of poor pneumonia treatment outcome was 4 times and 5 times more like among children who lives with smoker family member and exposed groups respectively. But it was 0.075 and 0.05 times less like among Children from urban and whom their monthly budget is 1000 birr or more respectively.

Child nutritional status has significant effect on pneumonia treatment outcome among under-five children. Undernourishment, smoker family member, rural residency, monthly budget are among factors impact pneumonia treatment outcome. Nutritional education, Mother education, Employing mothers, Budgeting more than 500 birr per child per month, alleviate smoking among the family member, Limiting family members number per house hold, All children should feed colostrums and Full immunization should be done.

Keywords:  Nutritional Status, Pneumonia, Treatment Outcome, Children.

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International Journal of Child Health and Nutrition

Infant Feeding Perceptions and Barriers to Exclusive Breastfeeding in Urban and Rural Cameroon - Pages 201-209

Lem Ngongalah, Ngwa Niba Rawlings, Wepngong Emerson, Oluwaniyi Titilope and Mumah Sharon


Published: 12 November 2018


Abstract:  Background: Child malnutrition is highest in Sub-Saharan Africa. Over 45% of children in Cameroon die each year from malnutrition-related causes, most of which are preventable. Exclusive breastfeeding is a well-acknowledged and cost-effective intervention against malnutrition-related illnesses in children. However, the practice remains low in Cameroon. This study explored perceptions of mothers, care givers and key informants on infant feeding in Cameroon, and barriers to exclusive breastfeeding.

Methods: A qualitative methodology was used, comprising key informant interviews and focus group discussions with nursing mothers, grandmothers and health workers; in one urban and one rural area in Cameroon. Participants were selected using convenience, purposive and snowball sampling methods. Data were analysed using thematic analysis.

Results: Cameroonian mothers were supportive of breastfeeding. However, knowledge of exclusive breastfeeding and its benefits was poor. Mothers expressed doubts about its feasibility and showed concerns about satisfying their babies’ feeding and health needs. Barriers included factors which either affected women’s abilities to breastfeed or their babies’ satisfaction, family influences, other responsibilities, cultural and societal factors, and lack of support from the healthcare system.

Conclusions: This study highlighted a sizeable gap between mothers’ lived experiences and infant feeding recommendations. Living in rural areas was an added disadvantage. Developing effective strategies to increase exclusive breastfeeding rates requires that mothers’ needs be understood and that influencing factors be addressed. Supportive environments are also required to promote and protect the rights and abilities of mothers to breastfeed exclusively.

Keywords:  Breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding, EBF, infant feeding, perceptions, barriers, mothers, developing countries, Cameroon.

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International Journal of Child Health and Nutrition

Assessment of the Nutritional Status of Children Living in Orphanages in the City of Douala, Cameroon - Pages 1-9

Cécile Ebongue Okalla, Daniele Kedy Koum, Calixte Ida Penda, Jean-Pierre Nda Mefo’o, Fanta Wanye, Servais Albert Eloumou, Elvis Temfack and Henry Name Luma


Published: 21 March 2019


Abstract:  Introduction: Malnutrition is characterised by metabolic disturbances identified by measurement of anthropometric and biological parameters. The purpose of this study was to determine the nutritional profile of children living in orphanages and to investigate the factors associated with malnutrition in these institutions.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on subjects aged 0 to 18, living in 13 orphanages in Douala. Socio-demographic data, anthropometric and biological parameters were collected. The diagnosis of malnutrition at the clinical level was based on Z score <- for the different index and >2 for Weight-for-Height and Body Mass Index for Age. A blood sample permits the photometric assay of albumin, pre-albumin, and C Reactive Protein. The results were interpreted according to reference values for age.

Results: Among the 176 children included, the average age was 10±4 years with a male predominance. The majority of children (51.1%) were placed in orphanages for lack of financial resources, and one or both parents orphaned were 42.1%. The wasting, underweight and stunting rates were 5.6%, 4.7%, and 18.2%, respectively. Hypo-pre-albuminemia and hypo-albuminemia were observed in 42.6% and 34.7% of children respectively. CRP was increased in 5.1% of cases. Stunting and orphanages with one caregiver for more than 5 children were predictive factors for hypo-albuminemia and Hypo-pre-albuminemia.

Conclusion: Rates of wasting, stunting and underweight were high. Several children had sub-clinical malnutrition despite normal anthropometric index. These results recall the importance of biology for screening, in order to prevent the occurrence of clinical malnutrition.

Keywords:  Albumin, C Reactive Protein, Malnutrition, Orphanage, Pre-albumin.



International Journal of Child Health and Nutrition

Sociodemographics and School Environment Correlates of Clustered Oral and General Health Related Behaviours in Tanzanian Adolescents - Pages 10-20

Febronia Kokulengya Kahabuka, Hawa Shariff Mbawalla, Elifuraha Godson Mumghamba and Poul Erik Petersen


Published: 21 March 2019


Abstract:  Objectives: To identify underlying clusters of general and oral health behaviours and acertain possible factors influencing the existence of the behaviours.

Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among 4,847 school adolescents aged 11 to 17 years. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire in Kiswahili inquiring about general and oral health related behaviours, socio-demographics and adolescents’ school relationship. Principal component analysis was employed to identify clusters of health behaviour. Frequency distribution for proportions, cross tabulations with chi-square and a two stage binary logistic regression were done.

Results: Principal component analysis identified four clusters from twelve health behaviours; hygiene practices, dietary behaviours, cigarette smoking & alcohol consumption and sedentary related behaviours. Girls, OR 0.8 (95% CI 0.7, 0.9); secondary school attendees, OR 0.5 (95% CI 0.4, 0.7) and adolescents with good school relationship OR 0.7 (95% CI 0.6, 0.8) were less likely to smoke or use alcohol. Urban residents were less likely OR 0.8, (95% CI 0.7, 0.9) to report acceptable dietary behaviours. Adolescents whose fathers had secondary education or higher, were in secondary schools and had good school relationship were most likely to have acceptable hygiene behaviours, OR 1.4 (95% CI 1.2, 1.6), 1.6 (95% CI 1.1, 2.2) and 1.4 (95% CI 1.3, 1.7), respectively.

Conclusion: Oral and general health behaviours of Tanzanian adolescents factored into four clusters with hygiene behaviours being most practiced and physical exercise the least. The clustered behaviours were influenced by socio-demographics and school environment.

Keywords:  Health behaviours, Clustering, Adolescents, School relationship, Sociodemographic factors.

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