International Journal of Child Health and Nutrition

Dietary Pattern, Anthropometric Indices and Developmental Milestone of Children Aged 6-60 Months in Peri-Urban Communities East of Nigeria - Pages 22-29

Vivienne N. Ibeanu, Uchenna A. Onyechi, Peace N. Ani and Ozioma A. Omeh


Published: 28 February 2018


Abstract: Background: Good nutritional status is of paramount importance for a child’s physical, mental and social development after inter-uterine life.

Objective: Dietary pattern, anthropometric indices and developmental milestone of children aged 6-60 months in peri-urban communities were investigated.

Design: The children (236) were randomly selected from health centers and nursery schools in three selected communities. Data were collected with structured questionnaire and anthropometry. The questionnaire administered to the mothers of the children elicited information on their socioeconomic characteristics, dietary pattern and developmental milestones of the children. Anthropometric parameters of the children were measured using standard instruments and procedures. The mean length/height and weight of the children in relation to their ages were compared with WHO child growth standard. Data collected were statistically analyzed using SPSS version 16.

Results: Less than 6% of the mothers introduced complementary food at 6 months, 31.4% introduced before 6 months and 63.2% after 7 months. Majority (97.5%) of the mothers enriched complementary foods with fish (73.7%), infant formular (72.9%), soybean powder (66.5%) and egg (64.0%). A total of 10.6% and 1.7% of the children were moderately and severely stunted, respectively while 4.7% of them had moderate wasting. Underweight was observed more among children within 6 – 24 months. The mean ages for sitting, crawling, standing with support and standing without support reported in this study were 6, 7, 8 and 10 months, respectively.

Conclusion: Scaling up actions on optimal complementary feeding of children would go a long way in improving their nutritional status and physical development.

Keywords Nutritional status, milestone, food consumption pattern, children, peri-urban Nigeria.


International Journal of Child Health and Nutrition

Predictors of Severe Acute Malnutrition among Children Aged 6 to 59 Months Attended out Patient Therapeutic Program Center in Kavre District of Nepal - A Case Control Study - Pages 30-38

Rajan Bhandari, Sangita Kumari Khatri and Khadga Bahadur Shrestha


Published: 28 February 2018


Abstract: Background:Severe acute malnutrition is an excessive loss of weight due to the acute shortage of food or illness. It is one of the major public health problems in developing countries including Nepal. According to multiple indicator cluster survey (MICS) 2014, 2.6% severely malnourished in Nepal and 4.4% are severely malnourished in Kavre district. However, there are limited studies about predictors of severe acute malnutrition in Nepal. Thus, this study was aimed to identify the predictors of severe acute malnutrition in Kavre district of Nepal.

Methods: Health facility based matched case control study was conducted among 210 (70 cases and 140 controls) children aged 6-59 months from November 2015 to April 2016. Data was collected through face to face interview with mother of eligible children using structured questionnaires. Multivariate analysis was applied to estimate adjusted odds ratio along with 95% confidence interval.

Results:Children with severe acute malnutrition were 11.32 times more likely than control to have recurrent diarrhea in past six months (95% CI=4.64-28.21). Similarly, severe acute malnutrition was associated with female sex (AOR=2.44, 95% CI=1.88-6.78), fathers occupation daily labor (AOR=4.69, 95% CI=1.17-13.76) and agriculture (AOR=6.850, 95%CI=3.81-12.93), improper exclusive breast feeding (AOR=6.646, 95%CI=2.11-20.90), not feeding colostrum (AOR=3.89, 95% CI=2.88-11.21), severe food insecurity access (AOR=3.55, 95% CI=1.85-9.77) and monthly income less than average level (AOR=8.214, 95% CI=1.43-22.16).

Conclusion: Severe acute malnutrition was independently associated with sex of child, occupation of father, monthly household income, not feeding colostrum, improper exclusive breast feeding, severe household food insecurity access and recurrent diarrhea.

Keywords Acute Malnutrition, Food security, Breast feeding, Therapeutic center, Diarrheal disease.


International Journal of Child Health and Nutrition

Rethinking Child Protection in Emergencies - Pages 39-46

Cyril Bennouna, Hanna-Tina Fischer, Michael Wessells and Neil Boothby


Published: 4 May 2018


Abstract: The humanitarian system is struggling to adapt to changes in the global political environment, trends in armed conflict and displacement, and advances in science and technology. In recent years, the international community has undertaken a number of efforts to overcome these challenges, such as the Agenda for Humanity, a plan that outlines the changes needed to alleviate suffering, reduce risk, and lessen vulnerability on a global scale. This article reviews recent evidence from a range of disciplines to inform these efforts, especially as they relate to the protection of children. Early childhood and adolescence constitute two critical periods of child development that lay the foundations for future health and wellbeing. Exposure to adversity in crisis contexts can compromise this development, with potentially life-long consequences. Evidence suggests that relationships with caregivers and peers play a central role in mediating childhood experiences of adversity. Unfortunately, interventions for children affected by crises are usually too fragmented to maximize the protective effects of healthy relationships. This article stresses the importance of developing multisectoral and relational interventions capable of promoting healthy development across the life course. Given the central role of caregivers, the household is an especially powerful level of intervention for combining approaches from different sectors. More concerted efforts are needed to develop household interventions that combine traditional sectoral approaches with innovative, cross-cutting measures, such as cash transfers and parental support. Household interventions should also be an integral part of broader community and society level actions, which together form more comprehensive systems of care.

Keywords:  Emergency, Child, Protection, Humanitarian, Intervention.


International Journal of Child Health and Nutrition

Beverage Consumption in the Diets of Children is Not Consistently Associated with Weight: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2014 - Pages 47-62

Theresa A. Nicklas, Carol E. O’Neil and Victor L. Fulgoni III


Published: 4 May 2018


Abstract: Objectives: The objective of this study was to examine whether there was significant risk associated with types of beverages consumed on the weight status in children.

Design: Nationally representative cross-sectional sample.

Setting: Demographic information was obtained from the NHANES interviews. Dietary intake data were obtained from Day 1, in-person 24-hour dietary recall interviews administered using an automated multiple-pass method. Height and weight were obtained according to NHANES Anthropometry Procedures Manual.

Subjects: Children 2-18 years of age.

Results: The likelihood of being overweight or obese was not significant for any of the beverages studied between consumers and non-consumers. For the total sample, for every 29.6 mL of water consumed the risk of being obese was 1%. For ages 6-11 years water consumption increased the risk of being obese and in ages 2-5 years, consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (SSB) increased the risk of being obese. The risk of being obese was significant p <0.05 for Hispanic males for every 29.6 mL of water consumed and for 100% fruit juice and SSB for other males; increased risk was ≤3%. The risk of being obese increased for White females for every 29.6 mL of flavored milk consumed and water consumption for both Black females and Hispanic females; the significant p<0.05 increased risk of obesity was ≤7%.

Conclusions: Beverage consumption was not consistently associated with weight status in the diets of a nationally representative sample of children. In some cases the increased risk was very small.

Keywords:  Beverage, consumption, NHANES, weight status, children.