‘Notes on a Scandal’: Why do Females Engage in Abuse of Trust Behaviours?
Pages 525-537
Andrea J. Darling and Georgios A. Antonopoulos

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1929-4409.2013.02.47

Published: 18 December 2013

Open Access 

Abstract: Although an evident reality in organisations where females work with young people, there has been no specific research to date exploring why females in positions of trust engage in sexually abusive relationships with adolescents. This study investigated the subject through a qualitative analysis of ten case studies from England drawn from the employment and safeguarding environment, comparing findings with existing studies into female sexual offenders in general, research into male ‘professional perpetrators’ and Gannon et al.’s (2008) Descriptive Model of Female Sexual Offending. The research highlighted a number of key similarities and differences between those who abuse in positions of trust and those female sexual offenders who abuse children in wider contexts. With respect to etiological factors the similarities included unstable lifestyle, relationship difficulties, low self-esteem, cognitive distortions and emotional self-management problems. Motivations for this sample appeared to be primarily driven by intimacy needs. Differences were identified relating to lower levels of substance abuse, a higher age range and socio-economic status, less prevalence of severe social skills deficits and chaotic and abusive backgrounds in this subject group. All of the women in the study followed an Implicit Disorganised pathway of abuse and maternal approach to the abusive behaviour.

Keywords: Abuse of trust, female offenders.
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"Judaism Intertwines with Worldly Good": A Qualitative Study on Religious Rehabilitation Programs in the Israeli Prison Service  - Pages 154-170 
Noam Haviv, Efrat Shoham, Badi Hasisi, David Weisburd and Yaara Toren-Rozanski

DOI: https://doi.org/10.6000/1929-4409.2020.09.14

Published: 26 April 2020

Abstract: Background: Religion with its religious institutions has played a key role in shaping punishment and rehabilitation of offenders throughout history. The aim of these programs is to transform a person spiritually and lead them to intra-personal changes on the religious level by prompting repentance or the reaffirmation of one's faith.

Objectives: We present qualitative findings from an evaluation of two religious programs operating in the Israeli Prison Service: The Torah Rehabilitation Program (TRP) that functions as a religious community within prison walls, and the Torah Study Program (TSP) in which prisoners participate faith-based studies four hours a day. The main research question that led the researchers was how Judaism provides opportunities for prisoner’s rehabilitation.

Method: This research is a qualitative study that includes seven interviews with seven Rabbis who work in the Israeli Prison Service and lead the religious programs. The interviewees were involved in the formulation and implementation of the religious correctional programs.

Results: The interviewees have raised a link between Jewish beliefs and practices, including atonement, and the foundations of prisoners’ rehabilitation. Among the themes that have been raised: promoting moral action; giving prisoners a second chance; providing opportunities for repentance and atonement; supervision; placing emphasis on behavioral norms; focusing on belonging and commitment to a community; working alongside Torah; learning and providing a unique response to each individual according to their characteristics and needs.

Conclusions: The emerging themes raised in the interviews correspond well with theoretical ideas found in the field of corrections in general and in positive criminology in particular.

Keywords: Religious Rehabilitation Programs, Israeli Prison Service, Judaism, Qualitative Study, Staff Perceptions.


International Journal of Criminology and Sociology

“It’s not easy but it's still possible to be an abstainer here”: Non-Drug Use Among Young Men in a Slum Area in Makassar, Indonesia
Pages 336-347
Sudirman Nasir, Doreen Rosenthal and Timothy Moore

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1929-4409.2014.03.29

Published: 10 November 2014

Open Access 

Abstract: This qualitative study explores the social context and protective factors that enable young men in a slum area (lorong) in Makassar, Indonesia, to abstain from using drugs. Semi-structured interviews, conducted with fifteen male non-drug users in the lorong showed, despite living in a drug risk environment, non-drug users were involved in neither the drug scene nor street culture. There were two main reasons for this: their employment opportunities, albeit in low paid jobs and the informal economy, and their schooling. These non-users asserted that respectability and the status of rewa (a local construct of masculinity) should and could be achieved through traditional means, i.e. employment providing legitimate income and education leading to a career. Their work provides both direct benefit, i.e. legitimate income (economic capital), and indirect benefits such as meaningful activities and structured time. Employment and schooling also generated a respectable identity (symbolic and cultural capital), wider social networks (bridging social capital) and the opportunity for upward mobility. All of these enable them to have a stake within mainstream society and are incentives for them to abstain from drug taking. This study demonstrates the crucial role of direct and indirect benefits of employment and of economic, symbolic, cultural and social capital in understanding the social context of non-drug use among young men in the lorong. The findings suggest protagonists of drug policy reform and implementation in Indonesia should be more cognizant of social marginalization in the lorong,and of the need to improve young people’s access to employment and education, in order to decrease the likelihood of drug initiation and use.

Keywords: Non-drug use, young men, employment, education, capital, lorong.
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“Correlation is the Truth of all Existence,” or Interdisciplinarity as a Methodological Principle of Adequate Social Cognition - Pages 2368-2375

Fanil Fagimovich Serebryakov

DOI: https://doi.org/10.6000/1929-4409.2020.09.286

Published: 29 December 2020

Abstract: The article demonstrates that interdisciplinarity is not only a characteristic of the modern stage of scientific knowledge, as it is usually stated. Nevertheless, it is a methodological expression of the ambiguous nature of knowledge about any social subject, which makes us consider it as a requirement for adequate social knowledge. This nature of knowledge about a social subject stems from the fact that every existing thing (including a social one), always, “by nature” in relations with other things, discovers that it is itself (“the truth of its existence”), only through this relationship, only through another thing, only in interaction with it. We can call this the nature of a thing; the way it exists. Moreover, if all the definitions of a thing, all knowledge about a thing that arises specifically, as a result of its various relationships with other things, are essential for its understanding and cannot be ignored when defining a thing. Then an adequate knowledge of such a thing (social things) will always be only its knowledge as the dialectical unity of many definitions. This implies that the external expression of this fact is interdisciplinarity as a methodological principle of adequate knowledge. That is, adequate knowledge of a thing (which is always multifaceted) is possible only through the interaction of the potential of separate, historically developed systems of concepts that correspond to these faces and form separate social disciplines, i.e. only as interdisciplinary knowledge.

Keywords: Interdisciplinary, Social Knowledge, Social Philosophy, Scientific Cognition, Subject (Thing).



“The Kindness of Strangers:” The Influence of Social Media on the Construction of Factitious Disorder Imposed on Another  - Pages 171-181 
Rosanna Langer

DOI: https://doi.org/10.6000/1929-4409.2020.09.15

Published: 10 May 2020

Abstract: Factitious Disorder Imposed on Another (FDIA), termed a psychiatric “Factitious disorder by proxy”, compels individuals to solicit unnecessary medical interventions or commit medical abuses on another, almost always a child in their care. A recent phenomenon is that of individuals with FDIA using social media such as blogs and online support groups to perpetuate such abuse, while garnering sympathy from others who access these sites.

Through an examination of several recent high profile FDIA by Internet cases and using the concept of “neo-tribes’ to identify the virtual communities of interest that form around these cases, new dimensions of FDIA appear. Fabrication of medical and social histories is facilitated and consolidated in the virtual sphere and readily enhanced through imagery and careful documentation. Betrayed communities experience exploitation and fraud. However, child neglect and child endangerment remain of concern, and identifying and investigating such claims across physical jurisdictions remain significant challenges for law enforcement.

Keywords: Mental disorder, online identity, social media, Internet.