When Do Legal Sanctions Produce Conformity? A Review of the Literature on the Interaction of Perceived Legal Risk with Stakes in Conformity
Pages 390-406
Christopher P. Rosbough

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1929-4409.2013.02.45

Published: 13 November 2013

Open Access 

Abstract: This paper reviews ten published articles on deterrence that address the interaction of stakes in conformity with the perception of legal risk. These articles are classified by types of stakes in conformity examined, such as marriage, education, and employment, and more general types of stakes in conformity, such as social identity. Analysis of evidence suggests that some individuals with low stakes in conformity may be less deterrable by legal sanctions and for those with high stakes in conformity, legal sanctions, such as imprisonment, may increase recidivism. The results, however, continue to show an incongruence between whether and which stakes in conformity act as a consistent deterrent.

Keywords: Interaction, Deterrence, Stakes in conformity, Police Domestic Violence, Recidivism, Legal Sanctions.
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Working Behind Bars: Employed Prisoners' Perception of Professional Training and Employment in Prison - Pages 1-15

Ronit Peled-Laskov and Uri Timor

DOI: https://doi.org/10.6000/1929-4409.2018.07.01

Published: 5 January 2018

Abstract: The research is aimed at examining the perceptions and attitudes of prisoners employed in enterprises in prison vis-à-vis employment and deriving conclusions regarding the impact of employment on the lives of prisoners in prison and its contribution to advancing their rehabilitation. Doing time is generally a painful experience, both physically and mentally, and often adversely influences prisoners’ life after release. Programs and activities have been developed in prisons in many countries, including Israel, to mitigate these impacts and at the same time reduce recidivism following release. A key such program is employment in enterprises within the prison walls, including training of prisoners in a variety of professions. In the framework of the present qualitative research 20 prisoners employed in enterprises in Israeli prisons were interviewed, and these aired their perceptions regarding employment and its effects. Three main themes and 18 sub-themes defining the attitudes of the prisoners to the issue emerged from the interviews. The first two themes are: employment provides benefits and alleviates the pains of imprisonment; and employment helps prisoners’ rehabilitation. The third theme emerging from the statements of an isolated number of prisoners is: employment is an act of exploitation on the part of the Prison Service and serves no useful purpose. The overall conclusion of the study is that employment in enterprises in prison is generally perceived by the prisoners as positive and contributory, in terms of both reducing the damage caused by imprisonment and raising the likelihood of the prisoner being rehabilitated through employment following his release.

Keywords: Rehabilitation, employment programs, pains of imprisonment, employment in prison.


The entire Editorial and Publishing team of the International Journal of Criminology & Sociology is thankful to the following scholars for serving as independent referees and conducting the peer reviewer of manuscripts submitted to IJCS. The rigorous peer review of the articles has enabled us to maintain the excellence of the journal and improve the quality of the content of the published work as well.


Aaron Fichtelberg

University of Delaware, Newark, United States

Siswantari Pratiwi

Universidad de Moron- Argentina, Ciudad de Buenos Aires- Argentina

Adongoi Toakodi

Yenagoa Local Government, Bayelsa State , Nigeria

Ntouka V. Afrodite

University of the Aegean, Rhodes, Greece

Neneng Nurhasanah

Universidad de Moron- Argentina, Ciudad de Buenos Aires- Argentina

Luchetu Likaka

Africa Nazarene University , Nairobi, Kenya.

Amani Saleh Alessa

College of Business Studies, Kuwait

Armin Alimardani

University of Wollongong, Wollongong  

César M. Fuentes

El Colef, Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, México.

Daniel Briggs

Universidad Europea,  Madrid, Spain

Sergey B. Kulikov

Universidad de Moron- Argentina, Ciudad de Buenos Aires- Argentina

Daniel Eduardo Feierstein

Conicet/ Untref/ UBA, Buenos Aires, Argentina

David Baker

Texas Southern University, Houston Texas U.S.A.

Anita Kamilah

Universidad de Moron- Argentina, Ciudad de Buenos Aires- Argentina

David Tokiharu Mayeda

The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand

Dianne Dentice

Stephen F. Austin State University, Nacogdoches

Dmitry Bakharev

Perm Institute of the Federal Penitentiary Service, Perm, Russian Federation

Ergali Bayldinov

Shakarim State University, City of Semey, Kazakhstan

Melissa Jardine

Universidad de Moron- Argentina, Ciudad de Buenos Aires- Argentina

Gregory A. Lindsteadt

Missouri Western State University, St. Joseph, Missouri, USA

Hanliang Fu

Xi'an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi'an, China

Hilmi S. Salem,

Sustainable Development Research Institute, Bethlehem, Palestine

Hiroshi Tsutomi

University of Shizuoka,Shizuoka, Japan

Hua-Lun Huang

University of Louisiana, Lafayette, USA

Christine Dewi

Universidad de Moron- Argentina, Ciudad de Buenos Aires- Argentina

Ignazio Grattagliano

University of Bari, Italy

Jibowu Olubokun

West London National Health Service Trust & Ealing Community Partners,  London , United Kingdom

Leman Johan

KU Leuven, Belgium

John K. Cochran

University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida

Febri Nurrahmi

Universidad de Moron- Argentina, Ciudad de Buenos Aires- Argentina

Mamta Patel

Harisingh Gour University, Sagar, India

Nurul Fitri

Batanghari University, Jambi, Indonesia

Marini Kasim

Universidad de Moron- Argentina, Ciudad de Buenos Aires- Argentina

Panagiotis J. Stamatis

University of the Aegean, Rhodes, Greece.

Raed Najjar

ENSA école nationale supérieure d'architecture, Normandy, France

Ramezan Mahdavi Azadboni

University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran

Ravikanth B. Lamani

University of Mysore, Karnataka, India

Ronit Peled-Laskov

Ashkelon Academic College, Israel

Lisman Manurung

Universidad de Moron- Argentina, Ciudad de Buenos Aires- Argentina

Rosanna Langer

Laurentian University, Sudbury Canada

Sajad Nabi Dar

Lovely Professional University,Phagwara Jalandhar Punjab, India

Salih Ceylan

Bahçeşehir University,Istanbul, Turkey

Sandra Margaret Hoffman

Cape Town, South Africa.

Seema Rani Pathak

Amity University Haryana,Gurugram, India

Eleni Nikolaou

Universidad de Moron- Argentina, Ciudad de Buenos Aires- Argentina

Sudirman Nasir

Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia

Vicente Humberto Monteverde

Universidad de Moron- Argentina, Ciudad de Buenos Aires- Argentina

Irit Adamchuk

Bar Ilan University, Israel

Algirdas Astrauskas

Mykolas Romeris University,Vilnius,Lithuania

Ning YE

Zhejiang Police College, Hangzhou,China

Mirzaee Siavash

Universidad de Moron- Argentina, Ciudad de Buenos Aires- Argentina

Leonid Baltovskij

Saint Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering,Russia

Odoma Samuel

Bingham University, Karu, Nasarawa State, Nigeria

Dmitry Bakharev

Perm Institute of the Federal Penitentiary Service, Perm, Russian Federation

Noralina Omar

University of Malaya,Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Gale Iles

Universidad de Moron- Argentina, Ciudad de Buenos Aires- Argentina

Dodik Ariyanto

Universitas Udayana, Bali, Indonesia

Ni Putu Rai Yuliartini

Universitas Pendidikan Ganesha, Bali, Indonesia

Erond Litno Damanik

Universitas Negeri Medan, Medan, Indonesia


Tadulako University, Palu, Indonesia

Sukardi Sh Mhum

National University of Jakarta, Jakarta, Indonesia

Rofi Wahanisa

Faculty of Law, Universitas Negeri Semarang,  Indonesia

Mahrus Ali

Indonesian Islamic University, Indonesia

Edhei Sulistyo

Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang , Indonesia

Nur Rochaeti

Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia

Bambang Slamet Riyadi

Universitas Nasional, Jakarta, Indonesia


Universiti Utara Malaysia, Sintok, Kedah, Malaysia

Nabitatus Saadah

Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia

Loui Nyahunda

University of Limpopo, Sovenga, South Africa

Andrii Trofimov

Taras Shevchenko Kyiv National University, Kyiv, Ukraine


Youth Justice and Education: A Typology of Educational Approaches to the Resocialisation of Young Offenders in Spain
Pages 438-452
Felipe Morente Mejías, Inmaculada Barroso Benítez, Charlie Davison and Gillian Green

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1929-4409.2013.02.40

Published: 30 October 2013

Open Access 

Abstract: The Young Offenders Act that entered Spanish law in 2000 represents a significant attempt to place personalised educational programmes for young people with social/criminal problems at the centre of policy and practice. This paper examines the teams and educational programmes designed to manage and implement the goal of ‘re-socialisation’ enshrined in the Act. This paper focuses on an analytical typology of the educational styles used at young offenders institutions in Spain. The analysis highlights the differences between styles in relation to the key underlying objectives of social reorientation and citizen empowerment. The wide range of models experimented with in different Spanish regions has great relevance to youth justice systems in other countries. For example, the typology we put forward has concrete implications for recent developments in England, in the light of moves towards establishing a national network of “Secure Colleges” for convicted young people.

Keywords: Young offenders, education, rehabilitation, juvenile delinquency, secure colleges.
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Aging Prisoners: A Brief Report of Key Legal and Policy Dilemmas
Pages 322-327
Israel Issi Doron and Helene Love

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1929-4409.2013.02.31

Published: 27 August 2013


Abstract: Background: The social phenomenon of the aging of the prison population has raised various legal and policy challenges.

Objective: The goal of this brief report is to describe the current key legal-policy dilemmas in this field.

Methods: A computerized search for legal documents, articles and studies using relevant key words was conducted in computerized databases.

Results: Five key dilemmas were found: (1) Early and compassionate release of older prisoners; (2) Segregation or integration of older prisoners; (3) Heaven or hell? The meaning of imprisonment in old age; (4) Fixed v. tailored sentences to older offenders; and (5) Is prison the right place to send older offenders?

Conclusion: Evidence regarding the unique socio-medical needs of older prisoners does not provide easy or simple answers to the legal-policy dilemmas in this field. Hence, as of today, the scholarly discussions in this field seem to be more normative (what "should" be the solution) rather than empirical (what "is" the evidence-based solution). Therefore, more empirical evidence is needed in order to design old-age based legal-policies towards older prisoners.

Keywords: Older prisoners, elderly prisoners, elder law, geriatric jurisprudence, jurisprudential gerontology.
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